Monday, September 30, 2019

My Philosophy of Ministry Essay

My philosophy of ministry is to teach believers, through teaching the Bible, and training leaders. So, that they may, in turn, teach others to be rooted and built up in Him as seen in Colossians 2:6-7. The first part of my philosophy of ministry is to teach believers in the knowledge and the ways of Jesus Christ. Every member in the church has gifts. They need to understand their gifts and if you have the gift to teach, be trained in the work of the ministry. Teaching God’s people to do the work of the ministry takes place through the teaching of Scripture (2 Tim. 3:16-17). The second part of my philosophy of ministry is to train leaders. A leader in the church is a godly servant who is influencing others in the church. Building leadership development in the local church is vital to the continual growth of the ministry (Acts 6: 3-4; 2 Tim. 2:2). I want to always be in the process of training individuals and preparing them to step into a leadership position. The leadership training process needs to include not only theological study and â€Å"hands-on† involvement, but community and relationship development as well. My philosophy of ministry desires to see believers become mature disciples of Christ that are equipped to reach out and show Christ to a lost and dying world. Realizing that the first step in any philosophy of ministry must be establishing priorities, I have established the following personal priorities. The personal priorities must be firmly established and followed through on. Personal Priorities: (1) Seek God first as the central priority in life. (2) Model a character of Christ. Jesus Christ set an example that all Christians should follow. (3) Model the great commission by doing the work of an evangelist (4) Lead others by establishing loving relationships. People make life changing decisions during unique occasions of challenge and reflection. 5) Bible study, prayer, and spiritual preparation for teaching. Lack of fruitfulness and lack of vision in the church are due to lack of spiritual leadership. I define myself as a leader and a teacher in my local church. I teach the people of my church old Jewish traditions, so we understand more of why Jesus did some of what he did. Also, the Old Testament was written to show history of Jesus’s genealogy, but also what was foretold of Him. I am the Director of the woman’s ministry, and the Awana program for the children to help them learn Bible verses at a young age.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Motivational Reasons behind Consumer Choice in Branded Coffee Shops Abstract Essay

The coffee-shop industry has been undergoing substantial change during the latter part of the twentieth and early part of the twenty-first century, reflected by continuous changes in consumer behaviour. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the motivational reasons behind customer choice in branded coffee shops, both international and local. A quantitative data collection of 300 questionnaires was used in the UK to assess consumer behaviour to branded coffee shops. The findings concluded that most respondents visit coffee shops with friends, with locally branded coffee shops the preferred choice. Consumer motivations to branded coffee shops are most influenced by three factors: past experience/ familiarity; convenience of location/travel; and friends and family. With friendly staff, high quality of coffee and food, good atmosphere and good reputation the most important aspects for branded coffee shops. Recent exposure of tax avoidance from companies such as Starbucks have had negative influence on consumer choice of branded coffee shops. Introduction Rapid developments and a monumental boom, the popularity of the contemporary coffee shop continues to grow in the twenty-first century. Starbucks entered the UK market in the 1990s (Bishop, 2012), which awakened a new era for branded coffee shops. Key Note (2012: 29) verifies that three major players exist; Costa, Starbucks and Caffà © Nero, representing over 80% of branded coffee shops in the UK, confirming the power of international coffee brands. This major market penetration has been to the detriment of smaller, locally branded coffee shops, which struggle to compete (Bishop, 2012). However, some news articles suggest that locally branded coffee shops, e.g. Cadwaladers, can survive, using the power and competitive advantage of the local market. Recent exposure of tax avoidance (see ‘Starbucks’ paid just  £8.6m UK tax in 14 years’, BBC News 2012) questions the future influence of international coffee brands. From analysis of the above it may be inferred that local and international branded coffee shops divide opinion. Reviewing literature of brand concepts, it is evident branding has been widely addressed (Butcher, 2005; Caruana, 2002; Schuiling and Kapferer, 2004; Young and Rubicam, 2000), and more especially, branding in the hospitality industry, (Allegra Strategies Report, 2012; Bashaw, Brumm and Davis, 2008; Bell, 2008; Chathoth and Olsen, 2003; George and Stefanos, 1999; Hanson et al., 2009; Hyun and Kim, 2011; Kim et al., 2003; Kim and Kim, 2004, 2005; Kim, Ma and Kim, 2005; Kwun and Oh, 2004; O’Neill and Mattila, 2010; Ruddick, 2012; Ryu et al., 2008; Wanke, Hermann and Schaffner, 2007), though it finds little research specifically concerning branded coffee shops. Against the above background, the aim of this research is to improve understanding by providing an in-depth analysis of the motivational reasons behind customer choice in branded coffee shops, both local and international. This addresses the gap that exists within literature concerning branded coffee shops, especially regarding what factors influence customer behavior, perceptions and motivations to both local and international branded coffee shops in the UK. Literature review This review considers visitor motivation, theories of motivation in general, hospitality-specific and influential factors such as social influence, socio- demographics and branding, with particular focus on brand perceptions. Visitor Motivation Sharpley (2008) refers to motivation as a logical process that results from deep, psychological needs and motives or external forces and pressures; social relationships and lifestyle. Often unrecognised by an individual, it can kick-start the consumer decision-making process, to ‘reflect an individual’s private needs and wants’ (Pearce, 2005: 51). However, Witt and Wright (1992) argue that needs and desires may arouse motivated behaviour, meaning behaviour is not necessarily predicted, whereas Fodness (1994) claims motivation is the driving force in interpreting an individual’s behaviour. A range of research is related to tourism motivation or visitor motivation (Cooper et al., 2005; Dann, 1977, 1981; Eagles, 1992; Fodness, 1994; Iso- Ahola, 1982; Krippendorf, 1986; MacCannell, 1989; Mathieson and Wall, 1982; McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990; Mill and Morrison, 1985; Moutinho, 1987; Pearce and Caltabiana, 1983; Pearce, 2005; Sharpley, 2008; Sims, 2009; Urry, 1990; Witt and Wright, 1992; Wolf, 2002). However, very little research is related to coffee shop visitor motivations. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1943), a theory of human motivation, provides a strong concept for consumer decision choice of branded coffee shops. Two constructs of this theory, i.e. ‘love and belonging’ support the desire to create a sense of connection. Witt and Bruce (1972) and Bearden and Etzel (1982), suggest individuals seek social approval, wanting to be ‘liked’ or ‘be like’ other individuals in society. The desire to achieve social security motivates individuals to choose the same brand as others, by external public observation or internal, social group attitudes. The power of the international brand as the ‘place to be seen’ creates a motivated behaviour choice. Lewis (2012) argues that superficial desires and behaviours are less influential factors and basic needs are more common-human. Maslow’s concept of ‘psychological needs,’ the need for life basics, supports this alternative motivator, therefore the drive to satisfy thirst alone is another determinant for visiting a coffee shop. The study of needs provides a ‘partial explanation of motivated behaviour’ (Witt and Wright, 1992: 44), but according to Mill and Morrison (1985: 2) individuals are often unaware of the real reason for doing certain things, suggesting true motivations lie hidden in the subconscious. So other influential factors must be examined as reasons why people visit an international brand over a local branded coffee shop and vice-versa. Influential Factors Wolf (2006: 19) notes that ‘nearly 100% of tourists dine out while travelling, and food and beverage consistently rank first in visitor spending’, supported by Shenoy (2005). These findings suggest one explanation for the major growth of coffee shops in high-footfall leisure areas, with an increase in number of branded coffee shops to 3041 in the UK by 2009-10 (Bishop, 2012: 1). Tourist typologies provide tourist/visitor behaviour differences, e.g. Brand Seekers, Convenience Tourists, Culinary Tourists, etc. Hall and Mitchell’s (2005) Taxonomy of Consumers can be used to classify the importance of food within their decision-making processes. Hall and Mitchell (2006: 147; Wolf, 2002) suggest a tourist may want to ‘taste’ the region they are visiting, with the culinary tourist (Shenoy, 2005), supporting motivated behaviour to a locally branded coffee shop. However, with many local coffee shops disappearing, this typology is questioned. Other influences like the power of a brand may alter ones attitudes and consequently change behaviour, research into brand power highlights this. Perceptions are influenced by motivational push factors, e.g. socio-demographics, familiarity, security, social norms, prestige and peer pressure (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999). Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behaviour examined how initial intentions and attitudes are affected by perceptions and account ‘for considerable variance in actual behaviour’ (Ajzen, 1991: 179). Social Influence Moutinho (1987) suggests 4 sources of social influence; family, social class, culture and reference groups. He argued these internal and external pressures were detrimental to behaviour when exerted on individuals. Thornton (2001) supports family as a powerful influence in tourist motivation. Merton (1957) and Rossi’s (1949) reference groups, describes the process when people adjust their attitudes and values to that of the reference group, e.g. product preferences (Burnkrant and Cousineau, 1975) and brand choice (Bourne, 1957; Stafford, 1966; Witt, 1969). Bruce (1970,1972) finds reference group influence can spread to other consumers explaining behaviour of visitors to a new area, seeking information when uncertain (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Another example derives from the need to seek social status and social approval (Witt and Bruce, 1972). The term value- expressive, is the need for psychological association with a person or group, to the liking of the reference group (Bearden and Etzel, 1982) and ‘need’ to be identified as using the same brand ‘publically consumed luxury’ (Bourne, 1957: 219). French and Raven’s (1959) propose 5 bases that explore how a social group derives power to exert influence. Socio-demographics also determine behavior (Bishop, 2012: 55), e.g. major coffee chains were more popular among men (29.4%) than women (20.6%) compared to independents in the UK. Additionally 54.6% of 20- to 24-year-olds were most likely to choose a branded chain compared to 17.7% of those aged 65 years and over (Key Note, 2012). Consumer research by NEMS UK Market Research on behalf of Key Note (2012: 1) claim during the recession 30.7% of people cut back on visiting coffee/sandwich shops, with, consumers more attracted by outlets offering discounts (Allegra Strategies, 2012). Mattila (2001) claims that social variables from the business perspective are critical for generating customer loyalty, e.g. social regard influenced new customers and perceived core service quality influenced existing customers (Butcher, 2005). Caruana (2002) recognises service qualities like customer satisfaction, results in service loyalty, while friendly behaviours in service interactions enhance business success (Bitner et al., 1990; Driver and Johnston, 2001; Hall, 1993; Iacobucci and Ostrom, 1993; Price and Arnould, 1999). Servicescape is also regarded as a critical factor. Wight (1996) argues the avoidance of crowds is important in explaining customer behaviour. Branding For this research a brand differentiates the international service/product from a local service/product. The brand is a powerful tool that attracts positive consumer behaviour, influencing perceptions and choice, i.e. purchase intention. Wanke, Herrmann and Schaffner (2007) found that a brand name evokes specific associations, creating a brand perception e.g. ‘Starbucks’ – where ‘star’ may be interpreted as star quality and excellence, influencing consumers’ link with quality (Ginden, 1993). Berry et al. (1988) suggests a well-chosen name creates a marketing advantage and should include key characteristics i.e. simple, flexible, memorable, distinctive and relevant – e.g. ‘Costa’. Rooney (1995) suggests a brand name is a major asset, enhancing company success, generating consumer confidence (Assael, 1995) and active consumer behaviour (Assael, 1995; Meadows, 1983), as consumers perceive one brand as more desirable than its competitors (Rooney, 1995). Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley (1998: 426) identified twelve themes associated with defining a brand, e.g. shorthand, risk reducer, identity system and image, influencing the consumers mind. Memory shortcuts (Jacoby et al., 1977) help speedier decision-making, advantageous for the time pressed consumer. The recognisable brand becomes the favoured choice (Chevan, 1992), as a distinguishable international brand satisfies demand expectations (Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley, 2010; Montgomery and Wernerfelt, 1992), so a brand relationship is established that may explain international brand market dominance. Sweeney and Soutar (2001) suggest branded products have four consumption values that drive consumer purchase behaviour i.e. emotional, social, quality/performance and price/value for money. Explaining how one brand can differ from the next; international branded coffee shops may be perceived the best at delivering these values. The Customer-Based Brand Equity Model (Keller, 1993), conceptualises the idea that brand knowledge affects the consumer response, leading to a positive effect on consumer reactions, generating brand attitude (Tuominen, 1999; Yoo and Donthu, 2001). Research has explored how past experience has the ability to influence and change buyer behaviour (Busch, 1980; Gaski, 1984a; MacKenzie and Zaichkowsky, 1981). Research found that power can influence aspects such as satisfaction (Bachman, 1968; Bachman, Smith, and Slesinger, 1966), attraction (French and Raven, 1959), conformity (Warren, 1968, 1969), and social influence (Lippitt, Polansky, and Rosen, 1952). Crosno et al.’s (2009) 5 Base Social Power Theory adapted from French and Raven’s (1959) original framework (appendix 1), found a brand wielding these concepts had a greater overall brand social power. These findings provide significant explanation to brand difference between international and local coffee shops. An investigation by Tsai (2011) strengthened the Strategic Management of Service Brand Relationships Model, finding service brand commitment and love, influence relationship e.g. satisfaction, self-concept connection and finally trust. Research on the importance of building and achieving brand equity, loyalty and awareness exist, yet little investigation into consumer decision of branded coffee shops. Literature suggests quality perception was most important for determining brand purchase (Bao et al., 2011; Grewal et al., 1998; Richardson, 1994, 1996). This provides support for research into customer perceptions of coffee brands and how they influence our behaviours. Local Brands vs. International Brands Schuiling and Kapferer (2004) argue with local brands’ adaptability and better response to local needs, e.g. flexibility of pricing strategy for specific local markets highlighting a significant difference to international brands, which lack intimate relationships with local markets (Schuiling and Kapferer, 2004). Their research on the differences found that local brands have a higher level of awareness (85%) than international brands (73%) linked by the number of years local brands have been in the market (Schuiling and Kapferer, 2004: 105). Their database revealed other variables suggesting local brand advantages, for example, as being trustworthy, reliable, good value, high quality and traditional (Table 3 in Schuiling and Kapferer, 2004: 105). Local brands have the ability to create a brand value system (Chernatony and Dall’olmo Riley, 1998) by endorsing personal and cultural values (Engel, 1993; Reynolds and Gutman, 1988). Chernatony and Dall’olmo Riley (1998) argued that Brand Relationship and Brand Personality (Blackston, 1992) were important for repeat custom and strong bonding, e.g. Cadwaladers, a local Welsh example, provide ‘distinct character’ and ‘culture’ of its destination (Jones and Jenkins, 2002: 116) and help establish a more unique selling proposition (Haven-Tang and Jones, 2006). Evidence exists of community support for local brands to support, stimulate and revitalise local economy (Boyne, Hall and Williams, 2003), creating regional development (Hall, Kirkpatrick and Mitchell, 2005; Steinmetz, 2010) and preventing ‘cloning’ (Kelly, 2012). A case study by Patterson et al. (2010) highlights local brand power in Australia. Closing three quarters of Australian Starbucks, Australians continued to remain loyal the their own coffee brand Gloria Jeans. Schuiling and Kapferer (2004) support local brands as the leading competitor, arguing the qualities and traits of local business have proven superior. They conclude that cost is responsible for local disadvantage, with inability to generate economies of scale. Schuiling and Kapferer (2004) argue that international brand development benefits from global marketing, e.g. portfolio enhancement, compared to local brands who lack global status (see Daily Mail, 2009). Schuiling and Kapferer (2004) suggest a balanced mix of local and international brand development is key to entire industry success. The aim of this article is to improve our understanding by addressing the gap that exists within research and literature concerning branded coffee shops. Little research explores what factors influence customer behavior, perceptions and motivations to local and international branded coffee shops in the UK. Methodology Given the nature of the research, formal quantitative data collection using questionnaires was deployed. Target market analysis highlighted the most prominent influential factors, internal and external motives (Gnoth, 1997) and push and pull factors (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999). This establishes what factors influence consumer perceptions, behaviour and purchase intention, similar to the survey conducted by Boa et al. (2011). Providing explanation as to why branded coffee shops (local/international) maintain their position within their industry, this research addresses the lack of research in this field, benefiting coffee shop businesses seeking competitive advantage or improvement. Providing insight to customer attitudes and perceptions, it proposes realistic prospects for brands, like the Y&R Brand Asset Valuator (Young and Rubicam, 2010). ‘Surveys are, arguably, the most important source of information for tourism analysis, planning and decision making’ (Smith, 1995: 42). Questionnaires are components of survey work (Finn et al., 2000), its purpose here is to obtain reliable and valid data on the research subject (Finn et al., 2000). A street survey of 300 questionnaires was undertaken, covering a cross- section of the community (Veal, 1992). Allowing generalisation of similar socio-demographic areas, this survey size gives representative data of the population (Seale, 2004), compensating lack of sufficient response data and weakness of randomness (Prentice et al., 1998), e.g. population and ecological validity (Finn et al., 2000). Clearly there is likely to be differences in demographics in the Southern cities/areas covered for this research compared to larger, major cities/areas across the UK such as London. Measures for the questionnaire are conceptualised from the secondary literature research, as discussed consultation of research literature like this facilitates internal validity (Finn et al., 2000). This identified deficiencies concerning consumer choice and behaviour to the branded coffee shop, reflecting research objectives for appropriate instrumentation and statistical treatment of data (Cohen et al., 2007). The questionnaire (appendix 2) included a standardised set of questions, allowing all respondents to interpret them in the same way, establishing standardisation and control (Finn et al., 2000). A pilot study identified improvements to the questionnaire before being confirmed as reliable, removing ambiguity or bias (Finn et al., 2000). Similarly to methodology by Bramwell (1998) and Prentice et al. (1998) this research was a non-probability sample of 300 shoppers, no sampling frame therefore is administered. Critics of this sampling argue that this method is weak, lacking randomness, approaching shoppers on an ad hoc basis (bias selection) inevitably means not everyone has an equal chance of being selected (Finn et al., 2000). To help overcome questionnaire distributer bias, a ‘first to pass’ system was used (Tourism and Recreation Research Unit, 1993). Shopping centres, high streets and small town centres in various locations in the South West (e.g. Plymouth, Taunton) and South Wales (e.g. Cardiff, Penarth and Chepstow) were identified as valid target areas, where street surveys are natural settings (Bogdan and Biklen, 1992; Cohen et al., 2007; Lincoln and Guba, 1985). The aim was to target up to 50% of shoppers within these fields (according to capacity of area). A total of 10 days was allocated for research collection, to reach a total of 300 responses. The procedure was validated and controlled by replicating each data-gathering activity, with the interviewer remaining neutral throughout the study, avoiding interviewer bias or the Halo Effect. Consent ensures content validity and reduces ethical implications (Cohen et al., 2007) while consequential validity was also confirmed; briefing participants their responses will not exceed the ‘capability of the research’ (Cohen et al., 2007: 140). This maximises interest and elicits a positive response rate (Brunt, 2012; Finn et al., 2000). The research method allows for completed questionnaires suitable for coding and analysis by SPSS, enabling the study to be easily replicated. Cross-tabulation examined results and chi-square tests ‘measured how well the data fits the hypothesis’ (Gravetter and Wallnau, 2009: 611) i.e. testing for goodness of fit, measuring what it is supposed to measure confirms validity (Finn et al, 2000: 28), creating a descriptive statistical account to interpret and generalise reality. Findings and discussion This section presents the results of the questionnaire, analysing the descriptive statistics to establish the independent variables and dependent variables: Experience of coffee shops; Coffee-drinking behaviour; Motivation; International vs local coffee shops; Effects of tax avoidance. Discussion reviews their linkages to the existing literature to determine if this new data supports or contradicts existing information. Profile of the respondents A large count for each gender was recorded, finding a higher degree of female respondents (55.7%). Their ages varied, with a large segment of the sample aged between 15 and 24 (42.3%). The population of England is larger than Wales. Results from the 2011 census (Office for National Statistics, 2011) reveal that England has 53.0 million residents, compared to 3.1 million in Wales. Further reporting that ‘there were 27.6 million men and 28.5 million women in the two countries’ (Office for National Statistics, 2011: 4). Looking more specifically at the UK regions used for this research, the South West and Wales, a marginal population difference exits between these two regions (see table 6). However closer examination of the gender populations of these two regions are fairly similar (see tables 7 and 8), both regions see more females than males for people living to an older age. These statistics support findings regarding the higher female count found in this research. Local coffee brands were the preferred type by respondents (53.7%) compared to international coffee brands (46.3%). Correlating with recent actions in Totnes (Kelly, 2012 – BBC News Magazine), this supports Schuiling and Kapferers’ (2004) assessment that local brands are the leading competitor. It also suggests that local brands may endorse stronger consumption values posit by Sweeney and Soutar (2001) to explain consumer purchase behaviour. Dismissing assumptions made within the literature review that international branded coffee shops could be perceived best at delivering these values. Respondents reported they visit coffee shops predominately with friends (50.3%). Only 4.7% of respondents visited with work colleagues, suggesting escapism from daily routine by Iso-Ahola (1987) may explain why coffee shops are less likely to be visited with work colleagues, avoiding an association with work related activities. This sustains popular belief that coffee shops are a social activity, with behaviour socially influenced by friends or family (French and Raven, 1959). Motivations to coffee shop Table 3 presents motivations of the respondents to Coffee shop using a 1-5 Likert Scale Analysis found that past experience/familiarity was the main reason why respondents were motivated to their chosen coffee shop (4.09). Confirming the influence of motivational push factors like familiarity and security (Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999), to satisfy expectations, meet private needs and wants (Pearce, 2005; Witt and Wright, 1992) and influence behaviour (Brand Social Power Theory, 2009; Busch, 1980; Crosno et al., 2009; French and Raven, 1958; Gaski, 1984a; Lippit et al., 1952; MacKenzie and Zaichkowsky, 1981; Warren, 1968, 1969). Confirming Brand Values are endorsed from personal experience with the brand subject (Bradley, 1995; Chernatony and McDonald, 1992; Clark, 1987; Doyle 1998; Jones, 1986; Tuominen, 1999), e.g. ‘Attachment of place’ (Phillips, 2013: 202), a principle Rowles (1978) and Smith (2009) claim is associated with exposure to a place. The second highest motivation was convenience of location/ or travel (3.99), which supports convenience is an important consideration (Kim et al., 2005) and convenient location is more important than the brand (3.61) (Allegra Strategies, 2012). Friends and Family rated third strongest motivator (3.75), confirming friends and family are powerful motivators influencing behavior (Bearden and Etzel, 1982; Bourne, 1957; Burnkrant and Cousineau, 1975; Moutinho, 1987; Stafford, 1966; Thornton, 2001; Witt and Bruce, 1972 and Witt, 1969). This reinforces Merton and Rossi (1949) and Moutinho’s (1987) significance of ‘reference groups.’ That Strong local identity rated the weakest (3.31) may suggest that local identity does not have the same impact as that of the brand itself, e.g. marketing advantage (Berry et al., 1988), enhanced success (Rooney, 1995) or active consumer behaviour (Assael, 1995; Meadows, 1983). This suggests that promoting local identity in coffee shops may not significantly affect customer behavioural intentions. International branded coffee shops vs local branded coffee shops A 1-5 Likert Scale was also used to identify what aspects were most important for both international coffee brands and local coffee brands, summarised in table 4 below. High quality of coffee/food was found the most important aspect (4.36) concerning international brands. Reinforcing perceived core service quality influenced existing customers (Butcher, 2005), similarly confirming Bao et al. (2011); Grewal et al. (1998) and Richardson (1994, 1996) that quality perception was most important for determining purchase. Rated second most important for an international brand was good reputation (4.08), confirming that social regard is a critical influencer (Butcher, 2005; Mattila, 2001). Friendly staff was rated most important for local brands (4.37). These findings are consistent with Bitner et al., (1990); Driver and Johnston (2001); Hall, (1993); Iacobucci and Ostrom, (1993) and Price and Arnould, (1999); who found friendly behaviours between service and customer enhance business success. High quality of coffee/food rated second most important, as mentioned above consistent with Butcher (2005) and Mattila (2001). Good atmosphere was also considered important for local coffee shops (4.13), supporting Kotler (1973) that atmosphere is often the primary product to effect purchase decision, physical surroundings and environment are also influential (Gardner, 1985; Obermiller and Bitner, 1984 and Donovan and Rossiter, 1982). Table 5 shows respondents’ attitude towards recent news claims regarding tax avoidance (centered around Starbucks). The results below confirm that a significant number of respondents were affected by the story (34%), claiming they would avoid using international chains in the future. Though 53.3% of respondents said it would have no effect, an additional 12.7% stated they were unsure of their future intentions. This provides a case which represents how important brand equity (Aaker, 1991) is for building the product’s image (Clearly, 1981), value promotion to attract and keep customers (Rooney, 1995), positive image (Ginden, 1993), consumer generated image (Chernatony and Dall’olmo Riley, 1998), brand value (Park et al., 1994) and likings and perceptions (Moore, 1993). Damage to the brand can be critical; the findings demonstrate how negative brand exposure against Starbucks now evokes a negative association and brand perception (Wanke, Herrmann and Schaffner, 2007). This confirms the power of Keller’s Brand Equity Model (1993); brand knowledge can affect consumer response, suggesting it had hindered brand attitude (Tuominen, 1999; Yoo and Donthu, 2001). Brand reputation (Romeo, Weinberger, and Antes 1994; Siomkos and Malliaris 1992) is a feature affected by consumer response to company crisis (Jorgensen, 1996). Jorgensen (1996) and Weiner’s model (1986) found the higher degree of responsibility and controllability a company was for said event the higher it elicit feelings of anger, effecting judgment, purchase and behaviour intentions (Jorgensen, 1994). The high number of respondents not affected could be explained using attitude strength, brand commitment and brand loyalty (Ahluwalia et al., 2000; Keller, 2003; Tuominen, 1999; Yoo and Donthu, 2001) i.e. brand equity (Aaker, 1991; 1992), confirming the importance of the Service Brand Relationship Model (Tsai, 2011). Cross Tabulation and Chi-Square Tests studied the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables to determine whether a significant association between two variables existed (Brunt, 2012). This research revealed a number of significant associations existed, providing insight of consumer behaviour to coffee shops, discussed below. A chi-square test between gender and 12 motivational items was carried out, which found one positive cross tabulation between women and ‘Popular and Thriving Atmosphere.’ This shows a significant association; women are more positively affected by servicescape (Gardener, 1985; Kotler, 1973; Obermiller and Bitner, 1984) and environment than men (Raajpoot et al., 2008). Popular and thriving maybe associated as busy, men are more negatively affected by waiting time than women (Grewal et al, 2003) which explains this gender association, suggesting Wight’s (1997) avoidance of crowds to explain behaviour is more prevalent in men than in women. A chi-square test between age and 12 motivational items was carried out; 4 positive cross tabulations were found: ‘Age’ and ‘Support Local Brand’ The cross tab indicated that more people aged 65+ rated ‘support local brand’ as the strongest reason to coffee shop. Age groups ’15-24†² and ’25-44†² rated ‘possible’ highly. Most ages rate ‘support local brand’ highly as a motivator to chosen coffee shop, though the older you are the stronger this motivates you. Approving Boyne, Hall and Williams (2003) that community support to stimulate and revitalise the local economy exits. ‘Age’ and ‘Avoids Crowds and Noise’ Age group ’65+’ rated avoiding crowds and noise strongly as a motivating factor. This test reveals the older you are the more avoiding crowds and noise motivates you when choosing a coffee shop. Supporting Day et al. ‘s (2000) Minimizing Sensory Overstimulation Theory, as suggested by Phillips’ (2013) study, older participants were startled by sudden, heavy or loud noises. ‘Age’ and ‘The Brand and Reputation’ This cross tab suggests that for ages ’25-44†², ’65+’ and ’15-24, Brand and Reputation was a strong motivator, confirming this does affect and influence a large majority of consumer motivations. These findings are consistent with those of Wanke, Herrmann and Schaffner (2007) that brands evoke perceptions, which can link with quality (Ginden, 1993) influencing consumer decisions. Findings support brands make memory shortcuts (Jacoby et al., 1977), which create consumer confidence (Assael, 1995) and active consumer behaviour (Assael, 1995; Crosno et al., 2009; Meadows, 1983). ‘Age’ and ‘Somewhere New/Different’ The cross tab indicated that somewhere new/different rated a high motivator among respondent, thus an influential factor in consumer coffee shop decisions. This is consistent to the framework created by Pearce and Caltabiano (1983) and Sharpley (2008) whom signify biological and social motives change over time. Social changes influence behaviour, i.e. consumer taste and style changes (Moutinho, 1987; Rooney, 1995) and social influences are motivators found by Dann (1977); Iso-Ahola (1987) and McIntosh and Goeldner (1990). The findings agree with Bearden and Etzel (1982) and Witt and Bruce (1972) that social security and social approval motivates human behaviour. A further test found a significant association existed between age and preferred coffee shop. The two youngest ages groups 15-24 and 25-44 were found to prefer international branded coffee shops more than local branded coffee shops, supporting Key Note (2012), compared to the two oldest age groups 45-64 and 65+, which found a higher preference for local brands. Conclusion and implications Reviewing this exploratory study, we suggest that consumer motivations to branded coffee shops are influenced by the following three factors: past experience/familiarity, convenience of location, and friends and family. This research reveals that social influence is a strong motivator in consumer choice and purchasing behaviours to branded coffee shops. This research also identified some similarities between factors perceived most important from the consumer perspective for local and international coffee brands. The most important factors for a local coffee brand were, in order, friendly staff, high quality of coffee and food and good atmosphere. Whereas the most important factors for an international coffee brand were, in order, high quality of coffee and food, good reputation and friendly staff. Respondents indicated high quality coffee and food and friendly staff were important for both branded coffee shops. The results of this research exposes that a difference between coffee brand preference and influential factors exists. The following section presents practical implications for businesses or individuals within the branded coffee shop industry. This research identified that a strong liking for coffee shops exists, with local brands the preferred coffee brand choice. The difference between important factors suggests it contributes and influences consumer coffee brand preference, motivations and behaviours. So to understand the motivational reasons behind consumer choices in branded coffee shops the consideration of these factors is necessary. Differentiating the local brand from the international brand, the results suggest local brands endorse a more personal relationship compared to the professional, quality relationship found from international brands. These findings provide additional theory on the power of social influence from the consumer and business perspective as a motivator to branded coffee shops, i.e. perceptions and social brand power. In addition, this research reveals that significant associations did exist between motivation and social demographics such as age and gender; e.g. women were more motivated by the popular and thriving atmosphere of the branded coffee shop than men. Whereas age presented larger differences between motivations e.g. ‘support local brand’, ‘avoid crowds/noise’, ‘somewhere new/different’ and ‘brand and reputation’. This research could be used for coffee shop businesses seeking to target a specific audience. Regarding tax avoidance, results from a specific question (see appendix 2, Question 7 and table 5) illustrated that consumer attitude was affected and that it negatively influenced future decisions, motivations and behaviours towards all internationally branded coffee shops, especially Starbucks itself. Detrimental to the brand reputation, this draws attention to the importance of maintaining a good reputation for successful coffee shop businesses. The findings suggest theories and literature on brands, motivation and influential factors is applicable to branded coffee shops, e.g. theory concerning local brands as leading competitors endorsing qualities and traits superior to those of international brands. Quality perception is important for determining brand purchase and can explain consumer behaviour to branded coffee shops. This research addresses the gap that exists within literature concerning branded coffee shops, especially regarding local brands and their ability to influence consumer perceptions. Little research explores what factors influence customer behaviour, perceptions and motivations to local and international branded coffee shops in the UK, therefore this research creates a foundation for others to explore and develop further. Given the rise in interest and boom of the coffee shop industry in recent times, this provides market research consideration for new start ups in the tourism and beverage industry in the future. A multi methods approach using an in-depth interview could improve understanding and explore customer attitudes further. A comparison of consumer preferences across different countries could also reveal whether cultural differences influence decisions. Limitations to this study exist, e.g. the sample selection was taken from the South West and South Wales and other UK regions were not explored, meaning a holistic mix of social demographic across the UK is not confirmed. Likewise, an equal count for each age group and gender was not achieved. A larger study may discover a difference between gender and preference of branded coffee shop, or whether significant associations exist between age and importance of aspects, which chi-square tests in this study could not validate due an insufficient sample size. Clearly the results demonstrate coffee shops are an integral part of popular British culture and this research presents findings to support this theory. Acknowledgements I would like to take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and appreciation to my guide, Professor Rong Huang, for her exemplary guidance, monitoring, constant encouragement and kindness. Her support and time has been invaluable and inspiring throughout the development of this article. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Professor Graham Busby for the valuable information provided by him in his respective field. I am grateful for his support. Lastly, I would like to thank my parents, brother and friends for their constant encouragement, support, care and kindness throughout this entire process. Appendices Appendix 1: French and Raven’s (1959) power typology Legitimate power is based on the perception of an individual that another person has the legitimate right to influence him or her, and that he or she is obligated to accept the influence. Reward power is based on the perception of an individual that another person has the ability to reward him or her. Coercive power is based on the perception of an individual that another person has the ability to punish him or her. Expert power is based on the perception of an individual that another person has some specialized knowledge or expertise. Referent power is based on an individual’s identification with, and desire to be similar to, another person. Crosno et al. (2009:93) Appendix 2: Questionnaire Appendix 4: Questionnaire Appendix 3: Table 6: 2011 Census – The populations for English Regions and Wales Table 6: 2011 Census – The populations for English Regions and Wales (Office for National Statistics, 2011:22). Table 7: The Population of Wales 1999-2009 by age and gender Table 7: The Population of Wales 1999-2009 by age and gender (Office for National Statistics – Statistics for Wales, 2010:3) Table 8: The Population of the South West by age and gender Table 8: The Population of the South West by age and gender (Smith, 2010:47) Notes [1] Sophie Burge has recently been awarded a First Class BSc Honours Degree in Business and Tourism at the University of Plymouth. 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Saturday, September 28, 2019

SYSTEM MANAGEMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

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Friday, September 27, 2019

Managing people Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing people - Essay Example Managers must establish an environment in which people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, materials, and personal dissatisfaction or in which they can achieve as much as possible of a desired goal with available resources (Lippitt, Peter, & Jack 1985). Increasingly important organizational changes occur whenever there is a need. For instance, when an organization revolutionizes its overall approach for success by inserting or removing important parts or needs to modify the core of its operations. It also takes place when an organization develops through different life cycles and for organizations to evolve, they frequently go through significant transformations at various stages in their development. There are numerous approaches in bringing change-some of the changes are planned, other can be structured and precise, while others may be more natural, unfolding and implied. Some perspectives work from the future to the present, others might start from the present to the future. Bringing change is one of the major issues faced by managers. In order to bring massive change, a manager has to renew his or her vast organization (Recardo 2000). Organization renewal frequently starts with an adjustment in the firm’s strategy, mission, and vision alongside strategic change. Strategic changes consistently sets off effects throughout the organization. Firstly, there can be cultural alterations in which the employees have to accept new corporate values-new philosophies of what employees’ vision as what they should or should not do. Moving quickly, accepting technology, and keeping lines of communication open are a few of the novel values the management needs employees to agree to. In case of expansion, the management has to start structural modification as well which is rearranging company’s departmental structure, harmonization, duration of control, reporting relationships, duties, and decision-making measures, as

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Operation management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Operation management - Assignment Example Outputs are also unique to every business in terms of the type of product or service being offered. A company without a quality OM strategy can risk being topped by more able competitors. This report looks to Starbucks on Lincoln-High Street, a service company with very high demand and need to be efficient. Analysis looks to understand performance objectives, demand fluctuations, quality perceptions from customer groups and suggestions on how Starbucks can improve. Source: Drawpack. (2014). External and internal effects on the performance objectives. [online] Available at: (accessed 20 November 2014). For Starbucks, speed is the most key objective to be sure the business gains customer loyalty and meets with satisfying important paying customers. The Lincoln-High Street Starbucks is a very busy organisation. During observation, research saw that Starbucks serviced about 20 customers every thirty minutes. This cafe had an unstructured queue system with no clear markers or barriers set up that showed customers where they were expected to stand whilst wait for service. Physical barriers and signs in a structured system better control flow and create efficiency (Adan, Boxma and Resing 2001). This created a situation where customers were forming lines in various places and customers seemed unsure about their place in line. On several times, customers deferred their place in line to other customers, not sure about who was actually there first. Having a waiting line system with clear markers, signs and barriers is important as it creates environment of certainty and efficiency. Models for waiting lines directly affect customer feelings about service quality and costs of getting serviced. Tam (2004) says that customers have better views of services when perceived service quality is higher than the costs they have to pay to obtain the

Comparison of ICT and Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Comparison of ICT and Education - Essay Example The interest in information and communications technology (ICT) swept the latter part of the twentieth century when technological advances grew at a massive rate. It is not, therefore, surprising that institutions like education have rushed towards technologies with open arms, and sometimes unprepared for it (Murphy, Walker and Webb, 2001). It is only until recently that challenges related to implementing ICT in education have caught the attention of researchers and academics. Studies, albeit seemingly retrospective in nature, remain promising in how it may be able to successfully make use of ICT in education. Is ICT in education effective, and if so, what makes it effective? These are the two primary questions that Skyler et al (2005) and McCarthy (2009) endeavored to answer in their research studies. The former team of researchers sought to find out if there are significant differences in student responses on a special education class that was delivered in three ways: traditional classroom, online classroom, and class-in-a-box using multimedia CD-ROMs (Skyler et al, 2005). McCarthy (2009), on the other hand, evaluated the use of WebCT in e-learning using Bloom’s taxonomy. Bloom’s taxonomy is often used for evaluation of students’ learning in traditional classrooms, and McCarthy (2009) applied this concept in e-learning. Generally, both articles examine the usefulness and effectiveness of ICT in education, but this is achieved through differences in the focus of the studies, which consequently direct the type of methodology used and the data collected. It would be go od to note that Skyler’s (2005) study in 2005 was used, among others, as a springboard for the McCarthy’s study in 2009. The 2005 study by Skyler et al. used pre-test, post-test and survey questionnaires to gather to examine if there were significant changes in the achievements and satisfaction of students taught in the three different settings mentioned above.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Virtual Community Research Methodology Dissertation

Virtual Community Research Methodology - Dissertation Example How strong can this sense of community be? 4. What kinds of cultural identity have been formed in this virtual community? Research Method The data collection method that I will be using is ethnographic interviews and an analysis of the website. In this case, the structured interviews consisted of asking the Respondents 20 open-ended questions, which are found the Appendix C. The Respondents were encourage to expound upon their answers in a concrete way, and give as much detail as possible in their answers. In order to find the right respondents, I visited the popular discussions on the site to see the interactions which occurred among various topics. After this, I posted 10 general questions (Appendix A). These questions were posted individually within a period of seven days. Fifteen respondents were observed. From all the Respondents, I followed the profiles of each user to personally determine whether they pass the first criterion of having maintained a distinct Chinese culture. Th e criteria for determining if the user maintained a distinct Chinese culture was by evaluating their point of view to ascertain if their viewpoint was oriented towards Chinese culture or towards the culture of the host country. Afterwards, the shortlist of 15 users was identified based on the duration of their usage and membership on the website. They were sent an invitation to participate in the study further through an interactive interview conducted through emails or instant messaging platforms of their choice. They were also asked the following questions in order to qualify them for the second criterion – that traditional media does not play a significant role in his daily life (Appendix B). Based on the responses to these questions, I selected ten users who display the second criterion the most. That is, they exhibit interest in getting the latest updates about China, and the Chinese people and culture at large, and that they do not get this information from traditional media. Furthermore, they exhibit knowledge about the fifth question’s subject matter, not only through their actual subscriptions and affiliations, but through their expression of interest to get connected and develop deeper understanding. After ten users were selected based on the criteria mentioned above, I proceeded to schedule the interactive interviews. The questions which were asked in the interview are in Appendix C. These happened within a period of one month. I also allowed the respondent during the time to deliver a meaningful personal account of experiences, and the flexibility to do it at his or her own pace. With regards to the website analysis, I examined the website carefully, then grouped the website categories into themes. These themes fit under the rubric of the four research questions which were asked, then fit into subthemes within these four research themes. The subthemes were as follows: a.) Common cultural practices b.) How having a common homeland conn ects users c.) Connection through current Chinese events d.) Connection between Chinese living throughout the globe d.) Connection through activities and services. These themes fit under the larger themes and larger questions regarding the sense of community and the strength of community, plus the cultural identities which are formed by the ethnic community. How these subthemes fit into the larger theme is that these themes focus upon how the Chinese users of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Romanticism And Realism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Romanticism And Realism - Assignment Example Therefore, even though not necessary or fundamental to Romanticism, but so extensive as to be normative, was a sturdy solid belief and awareness in the significance of nature. It later on, â€Å"allowed it to push painting about out of the focus of art.† Romanticism, for a time, dominated art, particularly in France during the later periods of the 1700s and the early 1800s. Then, at about the middle of the nineteenth century, the effect of many societal dynamisms caused artistic palate to change from idealistic romanticism to realism, starting in France in the 1850s. Realism in France emerged subsequent to the 1848 Revolution. These realists put themselves straight against romanticism. The emotional and exaggerated qualities of Romanticism began to break up European art. (S. Decline of Romanticism: End of the Century, Turn of the Century. Akadà ©miai Kiadà ³, 1970, p. 1) After a time of a loosened form of the expression and depiction of subjects in art, there was a tightening that occurred. At large, realists concentrated more on ordinary, run-of-the-mill characters, situations, places, problems, and objects, all in a "true-to-life" method or approach in depicting it. Realists discarded exaggerated or melodramatic portrayal or depiction of emotion, grand subjects, in favor of commonplace motifs or themes. After a time, artists like Monet and others started to feel that actual realism did not truly present the creative nature of the emotion. They grew exhausted of producing art for the rich and desired something much more. Simplicity substituted technique and method. Thus, they showed the impression of the scene, allowing the realism to be interpreted by the viewer. This movement that arose from Realism is known as Impressionism. Realism during the 1800s also supported an art movement called Naturalism, as a response to the exaggerated representations of themes in Romanticism. Indeed, Romanticism and realism were

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Religion essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Religion - Essay Example It is illustrated in their teachings that giving up worldly desires would result in eternal peace and harmony resulting in alleviation of the soul. For Shinto, Confucianism and Taoism, HARMONY AND SUPREMACY, act as the fundamental foundations of their beliefs. All three religions believe that world/ nature is supposed to follow a rhythmic cycle which brings harmony into lives on earth. It is the digression from this cycle which results in emergence of evil and good. Furthermore, they also recognize the presence of a supreme power that can be a God, Gods (as per various sects) or rulers of the land who are bestowed with powers to bring harmony and peace on their lands. Islam, Christianity and Judaism are mainly recognized by MONOTHEISM and PHROPHECY. Presence of one God is the fundamental belief of these religions which makes them highly distinctive than other religions. However, Jews have THEIR own ONE GOD, Christians believe that Jesus was the God on earth walking as a human but Islam believes that God relates to everyone irrespective of who he is and treats everyone equally but judge them on the basis of their actions. All three religions have figures that were prophets of their times i.e. Judaism had Noah and Moses, Christianity had Jesus and Islam recognizes Muhammad. Where Islam is the last religion acknowledging monotheism, it also recognizes prophets of the other two religions. Other than holy books, lives of these prophets also act as the guidelines which the followers of these religions are expected to follow. Careful analysis of these religions would reveal that all of them support the tolerance and respect for other individuals. This is where the concept of respect for life and its forms (human, plants and animals) and a clear distinction between good and evil emerges. All of them support the notion that every evil or bad deed meets punishment at the end. If these concepts are

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Members Church of God International and The Community Essay Example for Free

The Members Church of God International and The Community Essay The Members Church of God International, is one of the most prominent and well-established religious congregations in the Philippines today. The organization is known to be highly principled and incomparable in upholding Gods righteousness, existing for more than 40 years. Believing that one of the most important missions of the members of the Church of God International is to propagate the pure and untarnished Gospel of Christ on earth, the Church has conscientiously and fervently carries this obligation to fellowmen all over the world through the use of mass media and the Internet. As a member of the Church, one is taught to follow religiously and conscientiously the fundamental doctrines for Christians and righteousness as a way of life, and to be law abiding citizens recognizing the fundamental laws of the land they live in. The true essence of a pure religion is manifested in the Church of God’s high-regard and concern for the fatherless, widows, handicapped and disabled people. The Churchs charity and social welfare ministry, Lingap Kapatid was organized and established in 1997 to help the church in its mission to organize and help establish key orphanages in various places to house and care for our less privileged fellowmen who are widowed and abandoned. The historical and current importance of this religion and spirituality in Metro Manila, in particular, manifests in the manner of living of its members. In this community, there are more than 30,000 members who abide not only by God’s law but also by the laws of the country. The members do not smoke, nor become engaged in drug addictions, nor drink liquors. They are even encouraged not to marry if they are not yet in the proper age and if they are not physically, financially and psychologically stable. This thing leads to helping the community in promoting birth control. Religiosity influences a persons attitudes and values, providing meaning and purpose in life resulting to a healthy and safe community. Reference Soriano, Eliseo F. (2002). Leaving Behind the Fundamental Doctrines of Christ. Philippines. The Members of the Church of God in Christ.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Role Of Endorsers In Advertising Cultural Studies Essay

Role Of Endorsers In Advertising Cultural Studies Essay Perhaps most important role, an endorser must match up well with the endorsed brands (Shimp, 2003). As images of the personalities become related with products through endorsement, the meanings they attach to the products are conveyed to consumers through purchase and consumption (McCracken, 1989). Therefore, the practice of celebrity endorsement should be very much associated to the cultural perspective in which the images of celebrities are created and individual celebrities are selected to be linked with particular products. Studies outlined by Till and Busler (2000) suggest that the celebrity or product fit, also known as the match-up hypothesis, refers to the harmony of the match connecting the product being endorsed and the personality endorser. In addition to that, Shimp (2003) further states that there are 2 types of match-up, which are audience match up, where it deals with the endorsed brands target market along with brand match up, where celebritys values and decorum must be compatible with the image desired for the advertised brand. Product fit is thought to function as a main determinant of endorsement success (Friedman Friedman 1979; Kahle and Homer 1985; Erdogan et al. 2001; Batra and Homer 2004) although celebrity effectiveness does vary across different product types. Friedman and Friedman (1979) concluded that the better the celebrity or product fit, as professed by consumers, the higher the level of endorsement value. Nevertheless, Till and Busler (2000) argue that celebrity or product fit was effective for only certain measures of effectiveness such as brand attitude, but not for other measures such as purchase intention. Despite of the impact celebrity/product fit has on effectiveness Till and Busler (2000) c onsidered this factor should play a significant role in celebrity endorser usefulness. 4.0 CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT AND ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS 4.1 Factors / reasons Pickton and Broderick (2005) and Kelman (1998) considered 3 type of source attributes that are source credibility, attractiveness and expertness, where he believe may influence the recipients attitude which may explain why celebrity endorsement can be used as an advert tool. Erdogan (1999) also agreed with the theory and its positive consequence on the audiences reception to the conveyed message. According to him, the source is the person who is conveying a message to an audience. The Source Credibility Model In the context of celebrity endorsement, O Mahony and Meenaghan (1998) claim that credibility relates to the target audiences perception of the celebrity having sufficient knowledge or experience to provide accurate. The model contends that the effectiveness of a message depends on the perceived level expertise and trustworthiness in an endorser (Hovland et al. 1953). Consequently, the more favorably consumers assess the expertise and trustworthiness of a celebrity endorser, the more likely the celebrity is to be regarded as a reliable source of information on the product and thus the better the brand he/she endorses is represented (Ohanian, 1990). According to Belch and Belch (1998) spokesperson are regularly chosen because of their knowledge, experience and expertise in a particular product or service area. The importance of using expert sources was also shown in a study by Ohanian (1991), who found that the perceived capability of celebrity endorsers was more essential in explaining purchase intentions. Ohanian further states, endorsers are most useful when they are experienced, knowledgeable and qualified to talk about the product. In addition to that, while expertise is important, the target audience must also find the endorsers believable. Trustworthiness as define by Tellis (2004) is the willingness of the source to make true claims. The research conducted by Miller and Baseheart (1969) established that consumer behavior is openly related to the confidence they put in expert endorsers. The Source Attractiveness Model Another equally important attribute of the source of celebrity endorsement is its attractiveness. Langmeyer and Shank (1994) maintain that the concept of source attractiveness is not limited to good looks only, but also encompasses such non-physical characteristics as, for example, abilities in sports, grace, tact, charisma or intelligence. The theory is agreed by Shimp (2001) where he also affirmed that attractiveness multifaceted and does not include just physical attractiveness. The Meaning Transfer Model Unlike the Source Models, this theory proposed by Grant McCracken in 1989 contends that credibility and attractiveness do not sufficiently explain why celebrity endorsement works. According to this model, endorser effectiveness depends on the culturally acquired meanings he or she brings which may includes status, career, gender as well as personality and lifestyle. For example, from the celebrity athlete perspective, Roger Federer is publicly recognized from his career in the sporting arena since this is where he became known to the public. Martin (1996) concludes in effect the athlete becomes synonymous with the sport and the meanings become a part of the celebrity athletes image. Next, for the second stage, McCracken suggests endorsers will bring their meanings into the ad and transfer them to the product they are endorsing. Thus people evaluations of the celebrity endorsement, the measure of interest in this research occur when the advertisement is viewed by consumer. In the final stage, the meanings has given to the product are transferred to the consumer. As stated by McCracken (1989), this stage positively shows the importance of the consumers role in the process of endorsing brands with celebrities although Belch and Belch (1998) arguably said that this stage is complicated and difficult to achieve. 4.2 The timing According to Tellis (2004), the source credibility theory is most relevant for explaining the role of experts, while the source attractiveness is applicable in the case of lay endorses like fictitious individuals or characters. Furthermore, both Tellis (2004) and McCracken (1989), indicates that the meaning transfer theory suits the use of celebrities as endorsers, as it provides an insightful framework for using the complexity of meanings associated with celebrities. Celebrity endorsement is best used during the maturity phase of a life cycle (Anon, 2004). Promotion and advertising transfers from the scope of having new customers, to the extent of product differentiation in terms of reliability and quality. During this phase new brands are launched even when they compete with competitors, thus this is when celebrity endorsement can take place. Although, the use of celebrity endorsers is prevalent in advertising, however it is not without risk (Shimp and Till, 1998). When a company decides to use a celebrity, they should consider major factors ( Shimp, 2001 and Belch and Belch, 1998) as the timing might be in appropriate for an endorsement: Overexposure If a celebrity is overexposed, that is endorsing too many brands, his or her credibility may suffer ( Tripp et al. 1994). David Beckham, for example, may be somewhat overexposed. Cost consideration How much to acquire a celebrity`s services is an important consideration and unfortunately, it is not a simple calculation as it is difficult to project the revenue stream ( Belch and Belch, 1998). The Trouble factor As noted by Shimp (2001) celebrity behavior may pose a risk to a company. For example Gatorade had to drop Tiger Woods as its endorser due to the recent incidents. Target audience receptivity A study by Horowitz ( 2002),found that college-age students were more prone to have a positive attitude towards a product endorsed by a celebrity than were older consumers. This is supported by Belch and Belch (2001) where they indicates that this is because older consumers are more knowledgeable and has strongly established attitudes. 5.0 CONCLUSION This literature review aims to provide the assessment on the use of celebrity spokespersons in advertising to endorse brands. Through the findings the purchase intentions of consumers are closely related to the credibility of a celebrity endorser used in an advertisement, their perceptions of expertise of a celebrity endorser, the attractiveness and popularity of the latter as well as celebrity-product mix-match. However, as several failures show, it is essential for advertisers to be aware of the complex processes underlying celebrity endorsement, by gaining an understanding of the described concepts of source attractiveness and credibility, match-up analysis, and meaning transfer model. Further research efforts must be taken into consideration to develop a consistent, extensive and user-friendly tool to avoid wrong decisions and enhance the strategic quality of endorser decisions. Figure 1: Meaning transfer in the endorsement process (Adapted from McCracken 1989) Figure 2: The Five Components in the TEARS Model of Endorser Attributes

Thursday, September 19, 2019

How to be a Successful Oligopolistic Firm in the Long Run :: essays papers

How to be a Successful Oligopolistic Firm in the Long Run It is a well-known fact that every firm wants to be successful in its business. Sometimes it is difficult to decide what kind of actions to take in order to achieve it. Especially, it is hard on oligopoly market because this is one of the most complicated market structures. Oligopoly includes many models and theories such as duopoly where are just two producers and which pricing decisions remind monopoly, kinked demand curve, which decreases economic profit, and cartel, which brings economic profit just for the short-run. However, to be a successful oligopolistic firm in the long run, managers should include in the planning process such economic theories and models as producer interdependence, the prisoner’s dilemma, price leadership, nonprice adjustments, and correct using of barriers to entry. The essential factor of an oligopolistic firm is interdependence. Oligopoly involves few producers, which means more than one producer as it is in pure monopoly but not so many as in monopolistic competition or pure competition where it is difficult to follow rival firms’ actions. Therefore, due to small number of producers on oligopoly market, the price and output solutions are interdependent. As a result, firms can cooperate or come to an agreement profitable for everyone. Therefore, they can increase, as it is possible, their joint profits (Pleeter & Way, 1990, p.129). Further, oligopoly is divided on pure, which is producing homogeneous products, and differentiated, producing heterogeneous products (Gallaway, 2000). Economists Farris and Happel insist that the more the product is differentiated, the more firms become independent, and the more the product differentiation, â€Å"the less likely joint profit maximization exists for the entire group† (1987, p. 263). Co nsequently, it is worth to be interdependent. Another factor on the way to success on oligopoly market is understanding and using with advantage the game theory, in particular, prisoner’s dilemma. Game theory, a mathematical approach to strategic behavior, was stated by John von Neumann and Oscar Morgenstern in 1944 (Farris & Happel, 1987, p. 267). Game theory is useful in analyzing the actions in any strategic situation, from a game of chess to the pricing and output decisions of oligopoly firms where firms cooperate or conflict. The classic game is the prisoner’s dilemma: Numbers are years in prison for each arrested player considering different behaviors of each prisoner.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Brothers of the Bible Essay -- Christianity God Jesus Cain Abel Essays

Brothers of the Bible The Old Testament sibling rivalries between Cain and Abel, Esau and Jacob, and Joseph and his brothers were similar in some ways and different in others, but they all hold lessons for us today, for brothers today still face many of the same problems in life that challenged brothers thousands of years ago. Cain and Abel were in a situation much more unique than Esau and Jacob, and Joseph and his brothers faced, for the society they lived in was extremely small, and they each had a direct relationship with God. As the book of Genesis tells us, Cain was the first born son of Adam and Eve. Their next son was a boy whom they named Abel. As Cain and Abel grew up both took responsibilities for making a living. Abel took care of the sheep and Cain became a farmer. (Genesis 4:7) Both brothers in the space of time began to offer sacrifices unto God. Cain, being a farmer, offered the produce of his fields, and Abel offered the first-born sheep with its fat. God had respect for the offering of Abel but rejected the offering of Cain. It thus comes as something of a surprise that God accepts Abel?s offering but not Cain?s. Two puzzles emerge: (1) We are not told how Cain discovered that neither he nor his offering was accepted. Given God?s way of responding in the story, Cain may have told directly. (2) No rationale is given, hence God?s action appears arbitrary (Abingdon, 373). The biblical text gives no explicit reason for God?s preference for Abel?s offering. This has given rise to speculation. (Doubleday) And envious of his brother so angered Cain that he killed him. Cain?s response ? the downcast face ? reveals more the idea of dejection, feelings associated with rejection, than anger. Cain must care about what God thinks of him and his sacrifice. But the ba sic issue becomes not that Cain acts in a dejected fashion, but how he responds to God?s interaction with him about his dejection. That God responds at all reveals a divine concern for Cain. (Abingdon, 373) When God confronted Cain with what he had done and asked, ?Where is Abel your brother Cain replied, ?Am I my brother?s keeper (Genesis 4:15) The answer is yes, and relates to Esau and Jacob, Joseph and his brothers, and to us today, for we are all our brother?s keeper. We live our lives in close relation to our family, neighbors, friends, and even people we only casually me... ...howing us that when the ancient Israelites got involved in sibling rivalries they didn?t fool around, they also illustrate for modern day readers how harmful parental favoritism can be. Today?s parents should make every effort to treat their children equally, for the psychological consequences may be severe if they don?t. Finally, these Old Testament stories demonstrate to us today that sibling rivalries can be controlled if brothers or sisters make efforts to treat one another fairly. They show us as well that it is very important for siblings to forgive one another if their rivalries lead to hard feelings or even lengthy estrangement. Bibliography Abingdon. The New interpreter?s Bible, Volume 1. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1994. Chait, Israel. ?Joseph and His Brothers.? Online. Available: 20 June 2001. Doubleday. The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume 1. New York: Doubleday Dell Pulbishing group, 1992. Smith, Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1893. The Holy Bible. New York: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983. White, Ellen G. Patriarchs and Prophets. Washington D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1958.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Compare the way Andrew Marvell and William King present relationships :: English Literature

Compare the way Andrew Marvell and William King present relationships between men and women in To His Coy Mistress and The Beggar Women. If we look at the 2 poems we can see some quite significant similarities between them about the relationships between men and women. We see in both poems the desire for sex from the two men, but both attempt to acquire it through different methods due to the difference in class between the women. First we must look at the difference in forms of the two poems. To His Coy Mistress is a dramatic monologue and so we can therefore see the narrator's attitude towards the lady he is trying to seduce. The Beggar Women is a ballad (so it is telling a story) this means that you can find a moral to the story; however, you are unable to see the attitude of the 'gentlemen' towards the women as easily. I both poems we see that neither of the men have much respect for the women. In The Beggar Women we see that the 'gentlemen' views the women very low which is perhaps given the historical context of the poem. In the poem he refers to her as "game", comparing her to the animals he was hunting, almost saying that she isn't considered important enough to be human. It then says, "her cheeks were fresh, and linen clean" which may suggest that the situation is not what it seems. In To His Coy Mistress we also see the narrator has little respect for the lady; however in this poem it seems quite unnecessary because she is a respectable lady. He mocks her for being a virgin - her "quaint honour" but in those times being virginal was the only way for a women to maintain a good reputation. In The Beggar Women the initial rhyming scheme is "rhyming couplets". The pattern deteriorates as the beggar woman begins to take control over the situation without the man realising. In To His Coy Mistress, if we look at the rhythm of the first 4 lines, it is in iambic quatrametre. This is a very powerful rhythm and may reflect just how hard the narrator is trying to seduce the women. In both poems there is also the obvious similarity of the men's one desire of sex and nothing else and how much they will do to achieve this. To His Coy Mistress shows the narrator taking a kind and adoring approach to getting the lady into bed with him in the first part of the poem (up to line 20). In this part he uses time as a positive