Thursday, December 26, 2019
Morality, Virtue and the Public Figure Introduction According to the dictionary Grand Robert, the term Ã¢â¬Å"publicÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"what concerns people as a whole and what belongs to the social or political community and is done in its nameÃ¢â¬ ; a public figure is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a person who is invested with an official function or plays an important role in the social or political life of his or her countryÃ¢â¬ . In relation to these definitions, it is possible to identify different categories of public figures with more or less important roles : a political figure such as a government Minister who creates laws and take important decisions for his country; an intellectual and a star who is defined as an artistic performer or athlete whose leading role orÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦B) Differences between morality and virtue The same word can mean both a morality principle and a virtue but there is a fundamental difference between the two. If we take the example of generosity, the idea is a moral concept, which means that we have a duty to give back a part of what we received. On the other hand, the effort of giving this generosity is the concern of virtues and it is not limited to give money but also give time, comfort and shared competences. However, morality can lead decision-makers to act in a way that could have terrible consequences. For example, in the name of democracy, human rights and liberty, the president of a country could choose to lead his nation to war, and all this for a transcendental idea. In this case, the government is the decision-maker, but the people of the country have to follow it and share the same values, like for example Churchill during the Second World War, who said that the only thing he could offer his nation was blood, labour, sweat and tears. And when these political figures lack this moral principal called courage, like Daladier in France during the Second World War, it allow people like Hitler to come to power. As Machiavelli argues in Ã¢â¬Å"The PrinceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"it is necessary for a prince who wishes to maintain his position to learn how not to be goodÃ¢â¬ (----), which means that a Prince could be required to lie, betray, steal or kill if it secures the greatest happiness for the greatest number ofShow MoreRelatedThe Movie Crash Film Analysis1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHollywood films always attach virtue to the well-off middle and upper classes this is not always the class. Media and Hollywood films are guilty of assigning privilege to some and strife to others, however, the characters in the movie Crash played by, Chris Bridges, Brenden Fraser, and Michael Pena all from different economic classes display different types of class and virtue. For reference, virtue is defined by Merriam-Webster as Ã¢â¬Ëconformity to a standard of right: moralityÃ¢â¬â¢ and class as high qualityRead MoreMorality and Success Essay964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa contradiction between our demand that our children be honest and moral persons and our demand that they be successful? Present the argument that there is a contradiction, and see if you can answer it. Morality has taken a backseat to success. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s parents preach the same line of virtues to their children as did their parents and many parents before them; be honest and work hard and good things will come to you. But todayÃ¢â¬â¢s children are pressured to obtain their success, by their parentsRead MoreFeminist Thought and Ethics of Care Essay993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesimportant, is usually disregarded in the interests of the male partiality present in the male creators of many ethical theories. Gilligan examines the male justice perspective saying, From a justice perspective, the self as moral agent stands as the figure against a ground of social relationships judging the conflicting claims of self and others against a standard of equality or equal respect (cited in). The male moral perspective of justice is chiefly rooted in principles and rules, tending to denyRead MoreThe Rights Of A New Community1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbe. Consequently, to ensure that this rights theory to get valuable, the idea must be used in partnership with one more honourable theory that can constantly make clear this ambitions in the community. Virtue theory The advantage ethical principle idol judges anyone simply by his / her figure as opposed to simply by a action which could deviate via his / her typical actions. It takes the person s morals, name along with determination into consideration when status a silly along with irregularRead MoreThe Reprehensible Story Of The Enron Corporation1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe reprehensible story of the Enron CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid rise to success followed by their consequential disgraceful fall is one that has captivated the attention of the public for more than a decade. Not only was this scandal highlighted largely due to the widespread publication of the Enron CorpÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in the newspapers and television but must notably their substantial contradictory actions against not only basic ethics but EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s published Code of Ethics. Outlining the reputation of EnronRead MoreRomanticism In Victorian Childhood1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRomanticism, Victorian England and the po rtrayal of Motherhood In the Victorian Era, British society experienced a division of the family dynamic into masculine and feminine roles; the husband attended to the public affairs, while the wife was expected to tend to the domestic matters of the home. The home took on symbolic importance in Victorian society, for it was a haven for the individual to express emotions and manners that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be expressed publicly. It was in the privacy of the home thatRead MoreNiccolo Machiavelli s The Prince1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesduplicity. They were to appear virtuous and upright, but when the situation demanded the opposite, it was necessary for them to be willing to commit immoral acts and exercise their power. They could not deter from their tasks and duties by any means of morality. It was better for them to possess qualities of parsimony and those that instilled fear, than to be generous and to be loved. From MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, if a ruler wanted to be praised and respected he woul d have to be as cunning as a foxRead MoreA Moral Life Through The Right1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesapply to any concrete moral situation. The Role of Discernment The role of discernment is vital in any individual s life. It is a virtue that allows us to make good decisions, decisions that promote the right relationships. These relationships will lead us to obtaining the main objective of any moral life, which is human development. Discernment as a Virtue The word discernment is used by all types of people in different situations. Individuals who are discerned are said to perceive the complexityRead MoreThe Swedish Film Force Majeure Essay1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessatisfy our unmistakable capacity as individuals, which is to live in accordance with reason. Virtue amounts to living in accordance with reason. While scholarly ideals (intellectual virtues) are found out from educating, the ethical temperances (moral virtues) must be created essentially through practice. Despite the fact that we can possibly create both vices and virtues, neither virtue nor vice is innate. Virtue relates both to how we feel and to how we act. A virtuous response is always balanced, fallingRead MoreSymbolism, Moral Ambiguity or Attitudes Toward Women in American Literature of the Period 1776-18601049 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesresult, morality was largely based along gender lines and responsibilities towards others instead of being focused on the culture of sym bols, individual values and ideas. Materialism was largely used to construct gender aspects. Isecke (33) notes that materialism was largely relied on hence the overlooking of the important cultural system. As seen in my essay, the society contributed towards defying this norm through uplifting the state of woman, whereby she was viewed as an important figure in the
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Developmental psychology recognizes three main models of psychosocial and cognitive development. The first theory, presented by developmental psychologist and philosopher Jean Piaget, addresses cognitive development. The second theory, presented by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, focuses on the development of morality. The third theory, proposed by developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst Erik Erikson, outlines psychosocial development. All three theories are applicable from birth to death. Piaget believe that children are active thinkers. He recognized that the mind develops through a series of irreversible stages. He also acknowledged that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s maturing brain builds schemas that are constantly assimilating and accommodating to the world around them. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development is split into four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to nearly two years of age. At this stage, infants learn about the world around them by sensing it and interacting within it. It is also in this stage that the idea of object permanence develops, that is, the awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not being observed. In my personal life, I am certain that in this stage of development I would have enjoyed peek-a-boo, because if I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see it, to my developing mind, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t there at all. The second stage, preoperational, lasts from two y ears of age to seven years ofShow MoreRelatedLifespan Development : Cognitive, And Personal And Social Development1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLifespan Psychology Introduction Lifespan Development is the field of study that examines patterns, modes of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan of an individual. There are so many things to keep in mind about Lifespan Psychology; 1. Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development. 2. Scientists who study the lifespan know that neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of humanRead MoreEssay on Psychology1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin an objective way. Ã¢â¬ ¢social learning theory/cognitive behaviourism Ã¢â¬ ¢attachment theory Ã¢â¬ ¢evolutionary theory Ã¢â¬ ¢behavioural genetics Ã¢â¬ ¢PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development Ã¢â¬ ¢EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Ã¢â¬ ¢developmental systems Define and describe the following research methods Ã¢â¬ ¢correlational study Ã¢â¬ ¢experimental study Ã¢â¬ ¢cross sectional study Ã¢â¬ ¢longitudinal study Study Questions 1. Define cohort and briefly summarize at least one major difference in how different cohorts, past andRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1828 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesapproaches in regards to cognitive development. Firstly, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development describes the changes in logical thinking of children and adolescents. Piaget suggested that children proceed through four stages that are based on maturation and experience. Piaget managed numerous intelligence tests to children and this led to him becoming interested in the types of faults children of different ages were most probable to make. Piaget hypothesized that cognitive development proceeds in fourRead MoreArticle Summary : Developmental Potential1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle Summary The article Ã¢â¬Å"Developmental Potential in The First 5 Years for Children in Developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ is a research about the major risks of the children who live in developing countries. This article highlights the relevance of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 first years of age, through the evaluation of different psychological and physical cases around the world to proof the impact of poverty in their development (Grantham-McGregor et al., 2007). Hypothesis/Research Questions The research question inRead MoreReview of Articles on Childrens Developmental Theories761 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesChildrens developmental theories explain how attachment is a major part of psychosocial development. Duhn (2010) explains how touch can help augment creation of more positive attachment models like secure attachment, while Brown, Manglesdorf, and Neff (2012) show important fatherly attention is in generating secure attachment as well. The first article is Duhns (2010) examination of the importance of the human touch in caring for children as they go through the cognitive development journey. DuhnRead MoreThe Problem Of Human Development1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescenturies attempting to obtain the secrets of human development and identify the exact science behind it. Experts have not been able to discover any exact influences of normal human development, nor have they been able to uncover the exact causes of developmental abnormalities (Disabilities). What they have found can seem quite confusing and has caused much debate among those trying to tackle the answer to the question. Is ones developmental trajectory determined by the highness of their geneticsRead MoreChild Development Developing Countries : Article Critique Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Child Development in Developing Countries Article Critique Jimena Renteria Liberty University Introduction The article Ã¢â¬Å"Developmental Potential in The First 5 Years for Children in Developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ , published in 2007 by several authors, is a research about the major risks of the children who live in developing countries. This article highlights the relevance of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 first years of age, through the evaluation of different psychological and physical cases aroundRead MoreThe Issue Of Child Onset Schizophrenia Essay1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith a higher occurrence of more severe symptoms, child onset schizophrenia is a complicated issue because children are being prescribed psychotropic medications at an early age during a period of critical brain development (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2014). This greatly affects development and exposes children to very severe side effects of the medication, resulting in a lot of patients refusing medication and the treatment they deserve. As social workers, it is important to look at different behavioralRead MoreDevelopmental Psychology : An Introduction2958 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesDevelopmental Psychology: An introduction Psychology is a field that is broken down into many subfields, each field distinctive in their nature. One of the most studied fields is developmental psychology. Before I explain the field in depth, it is important to understand what developmental psychology is, and how it came to be. Developmental psychology is mainly a scientific approach, which aims to explain how children and adults change overtime (Lerner, Lewin-Bizan, Warren, 2011). Most uniquelyRead MoreInfluence Of Childhood Attachment On Moral Leadership2432 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesstages in development they may occur. The fundamental development occurs in three stages. Theses stages are physical, cognitive and psychosocial in which all human life goes through. While these stages inherently create human functions, intelligence and social and other interpersonal traits, it encompasses the positive and negative attributes also from birth to adulthood. First, one must be able to understand the phase of developments, here is a brief overview of the phases: Physical development- During
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Describe about Business and Corporate Law of Relevant Laws and Applications. Answer: This report analyses two different situation using relevant laws and applications to evaluate whether the contract is enforceable or not. 1. In the business and corporate law, consideration is a significant element in the formation of a contract. In a consideration contract and agreement, both parties (promisor and promisee) should receive some value in term of benefit, loss, responsibility and right (Poole, 2016). An agreement without valid consideration is an invalid contract. To the formation of a contract enforceable, there is required to an offer is made by promisor and its acceptance by the promisee. In the other words, consideration of a contract law refers to simply exchange of things between two parties where the value is also included. In the consideration of an enforceable agreement, the significant thing is the legality of terms and conditions. (A) In this case, Jane is going to abroad, so she offers to give her Lotus Super 7 sports car to jack and Jack accepts the offer of Jane. In the market, the value of this type of care is approximately $25,000. Thus, the issue is whether the consideration is presented in this case or not. According to the concept of the consideration, this case is unenforceable agreement; due to there is the lack of fulfilment of the consideration legal principal (Harris, 2015). In the consideration, it is essential to both parties receive some value in the agreement. But in this case, Jack is getting the benefit as Lotus Super 7 sports car, which is offered by the Jane. Jane is not receiving anything type of profit or money against this. In additionally, Jack is also not doing any promise to give return against Janes offer. Thus, it can be concluded that this case is not involving the consideration in the agreement and it is an unenforceable agreement. In this case, consideration will present when the Jack promises to Jane to give a value against to car that should be meet the market value of the care (Morgan, 2012). (B) In this case, Jane offers to Jack sell her Lotus Super 7 sports car for $25 000 and Jack accepts Janes offer. At the same time, in the market value of this care is approximately $25,000. In this case, the issue is that weather consideration is presented or not. As per principle of the consideration, in this situation consideration is presented because both parties in the agreement are agreed to exchange some values. In the given case this, Jane is selling her car for $25000 and Jack accepts Janes offer without made any reduction in the offer price. It proves that this is a considerable case. Along with this, jack has not made any reduction in this price. The missing aspect in the last case is now major aspect. It is because both parties are getting benefit in this situation. Jack is getting the benefit of Lotus Super 7 sport; on the other hand, Jane is getting benefit in monetary term. It means that this agreement is completing the legal formalities of the sale and purchasing contract act (Bartsch, 2016). On the behalf of this, it can be identified that this case is legal in terms of consideration and the buyer has an enforceable agreement. (C) According the case, Jane is offering a Lotus Super 7 sports car for $2500 to Jack and Jack buys her car without make any changes. At the same this, the actual value of the care is $25000 in the market. In this situation, the issue is created that whether the consideration is presented in the case or not. In this case, the consideration is presented in the agreement but, it is not with proper justification. The principle of the consideration depicts that both parties should receive adequate benefit from their actions (McKendrick, 2014). In the existing case, Jane is offering her sports car only for $2500, but the market value of it is $25000. As concerning this consideration principle, Jane should receive the adequate value of its car that can be approximately $25000. But, at the same time, it is Jane self-offer and decision. There is not any kind of pressure upon the Jane to sell its car for $2500. It depicts that consideration is presented in this case and Jack has an enforceable agreement in the court (Hart, et al., 2012). At the same time, it is also found that the contract between Jane and Jack is not affected by any public policy and civil law. It provides strength to the contract and proves that contract is enforceable. In this agreement, both parties have a legal obligation to fulfill their commitment regarding the law of consideration. Beside of this, in the contract law, an agreement may be unenforceable if, the promise is impossible to finish. In this situation, the agreement cannot be registered in the court (Hillman, 2012). In the context this agreement between Jane and Jack, the offer is given by Jane for selling her car only for $2500; this agreement is not fair due to the inadequate value of the sports car. It is because the actual market price of the care is $25000, which is by far from the offer price. In this manner, it is inadequate for Jane due to the price of the sports car is not according to the market price. At the same time, it is also found that to make a contract valid and enfo rceable; three elements are essential in an agreement, which is consideration of law, a legal or valid offer and its acceptance and mutual assent (Bozeman, 2015). The agreement between Jane and Jack is unenforceable due to this agreement does not fulfil the requirement of an enforcement contract. In the study of this case, it is found that Jane has not offered valid agreement to the Jack. It is because the market value of the car is $25000 while Jane is offering it only $2500. Due to this, it is affected by the rules business and corporate law. But, at the same time, conformity and willingness of the Jane show that it is legal agreement in terms of consideration and it is also an enforceable agreement for Jack (DiMatteo and Hogg, 2016). 2. This case is seemed as case of duress in completing the objective of the case. According to the presented case, North Ocean Tankers have contract with shipbuilder for producing a tanker. This contract has done in the US currency and it will not contain any alternation in the future due to change in currency value. Unfortunately, in the mid of contraction of the tanker, the value of the US dollar has devalued approximately 10 percent. Due to this, the shipbuilder is observed that there is a loss in contraction of tanker and it is demanded to pay extra US$3 million otherwise, it can punctuate the work. In this case, the buyer has agreed to pay the excess money due to it had a charter regarding the tanker. So, it is essential for it to make the delivery on the time. After complete this agreement, the North Ocean has not tried for recovering its additional amount till nine months. Thus, the issue in this case is that whether the buyer has legal obligation to recover its excess amount. According the principles and rules of the contract law, duress is an illegal term in the contract and agreement (Habermas, 2015). Many times, it is seen that one party of the contract is used threat and violence against to another party of the contract. It is because; first party tries to compel for achieving contract objective. In this case, there is involuntary of the buyer to pay the exceed amount, which is occurred due to devalue in US currency. It is also analyzed that threat in the contract is also a reason in making contract illegal (Schwenzer, et al., 2012). In this, the shipbuilder treats the North Ocean Tankers to pay extra amount otherwise, it will stop the work of contraction of the tanker. It proves that threat of the shipbuilder to complete the contract is illegal. Duress in the contract law is defined as a threat of a party against to another party's willingness or assessment (Harris, 2015). All kinds of the illegal threats come in duress of the law that makes the agreement illegal. There are two types of duress in the contract law, which are physical duress and economic duress. In this, physical duress includes the person duress and goods duress. Murder and kidnapping such as activities are come in duress of person. Duress of goods refers to refuse to deliver goods. On the order hand, economic duress includes the no reasonable alternative, wrongful and improper threat and financial distress (Hillman, 2012). From the study of the given case, it is identified that the shipbuilder has created pressure on the buyer to retain involved in the contract with paying US$ 3million extra money. The reason behind this is that the shipbuilder is in loss due to the US government devalued its currency by 10 percent (Mattila, 2016). So, on the basis of given detail, it is analyzed that North Ocean Tankers has paid excess payment amount of US$ 3 million to the shipbuilder under the duress. It leads to economic duress in the agreement as well as duress of goods. It ensures to North Ocean Tankers to recover its extra money from the shipbuilder. Additionally, in this case, it is also found that shipbuilder has not given the alternative option to the North Ocean Tankers for accomplishing the objective in determined agreement (Cartwright, 2016). In this situation, the law is said that undue commercial pressure in the agreement is a kind of treat that is illegal in terms of the law. The court is required to take effective action for solving this type of issue with the carefully analysis of the case. In this case, the court will find that the shipbuilder has made pressure on the North Ocean Tankers for retaining in agreement and paid excess payment. In the other words, it will be said that the contract has completed in the under the duress of agreement (Butler, et al., 2013). On the basis of this discussion, it can be concluded that the buyer is able to recover its excess amount and for this, it can be applied in the court. For the example, an earlier duress case is studied of North Ocean Shipping Co. Ltd v Hyundai Corporation Co Ltd. In this case, Hyundai was shipbuilder and the payment of the deal had done in five instalments. But, Hyundai was demanded to give 10% extra of the deal due to some default in the payment and shipbuilder was stopped the delivery of the ship. North Ocean was said that they will pay excess money to maintain the relationship. In this case, the high court was taken action as to refund the extra amount to North Ocean. The court was said that amicable relation was not the good consideration but, instead of this, increasing the letter of credit was a good consideration (Bix and Bix, 2012). This agreement was void due to the involvement of physical duress in the contract. Along with this, the study of the law depicts that duress in the contract leads to make contract voidable, which provides strength to a party that is treated by another party (Mattila, 2016). The law also provides right to infected parties to get the compensation in against loss in the agreement. From the case study of North Ocean Tankers and shipbuilder, it is said that buyer has right to go to court for recovering US$3 million from the shipbuilder. Reference Bartsch, R.I. (2016) International aviation law: a practical guide. UK: Routledge. Bix, B. and Bix, B.H. (2012) Contract law: rules, theory, and context. UK: Cambridge University Press. Bozeman, A.B. (2015) The future of law in a multicultural world. USA: Princeton University Press. Butler, D.A., Christensen, S., Dixon, B. and Willmott, L. (2013) Contract Law Case Book. USA: Oxford University Press. Cartwright, J. (2016) Contract law: An introduction to the English law of contract for the civil lawyer. UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. DiMatteo, L.A. and Hogg, M. eds. (2016) Comparative Contract Law: British and American Perspectives. USA: Oxford University Press. Habermas, J. (2015) Between facts and norms: Contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. USA: John Wiley Sons. Harris, P. (2015) An introduction to law. UK: Cambridge University Press. Hart, H.L.A., Raz, J., Green, L. and Bulloch, P.A., (2012) The concept of law. USA: Oxford University Press. Hillman, R.A. (2012) The richness of contract law: An analysis and critique of contemporary theories of contract law. Germany: Springer Science Business Media. Mattila, H.E. (2016) Comparative legal linguistics: language of Law, Latin and modern lingua francas. UK: Routledge. McKendrick, E. (2014) Contract law: text, cases, and materials. UK: Oxford University Press. Morgan, J. (2012) Great Debates in Contract Law. UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Poole, J. (2016) Textbook on contract law. UK: Oxford University Press. Schwenzer, I., Hachem, P. and Kee, C. (2012) Global sales and contract law. USA: Oxford University Press.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Uniformity of Accounting Standard and Conceptual Framework Executive summery Harmonization of the accounting standard and conceptual framework is emerging as a requirement for of the international community. As business cross national boundaries so the transecting parties need uniformity in the financial reporting for better understanding of the business conditions. The process of harmonization gets accelerated by the initiative of the two major standard setting body of the world IASB and FASB. Although the two authoritative bodies try to uniform the accounting standard but the major concern arises here is the biasness of the influencing nations. In the assignment, pros of the harmonization process is discussed which is essential for international business community. The process is also disturbed by taking into account no consideration of the society and judgment of the professionals. In the assignment some recommendations are made for accelerating the harmonization process. Contents Introduction Economics and politics are the two major elements that shape the accounting standard of a nation. We will write a custom essay sample on Uniformity of Accounting Standard and Conceptual Framework or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As each and every nation varies in their economic condition, customized accounting standard gets its appeal. Nowadays business is not confined in the national boundaries. With the integration of the worldwide market and the economic forces the process harmonizing the accounting standard has become an emerging issue. In the process independent rather than governmental organization is most appropriate. If we account for the advantages and disadvantages of the harmonization process then in the pros side of the ledger high quality standard of the FASB is the achievement and in the cons side I will posted the biasness of the standard setters. The process reduces the cost of the international community because adding an additional member in the process tends to zero marginal cost of standard setters. Why uniformity in the accounting standard and conceptual framework? With the widespread integration of the markets and policies all over the world, nowadays it becomes inevitable for the financial institutions all over the world to follow a uniform standard for financial reporting. Following the high quality accounting standard tends to a higher standard financial reporting. The pros for informing standard all over the world are as follows: (Ball, ,2005) Maintaining uniformity in financial data presentation: standards are set to guide the contracts of the financial institutions. In the case, if the financial reporting of the entities is different, it causes problem for both the contracting parties in the maintenance of the conditions of the contracts. For example- Company X lends money from Bank Y on the condition that landed amount must not exceed 60% of the total tangible. In the situation valuation techniques of the firms are different then it affects the contract adversely. So following a uniform standard for valuation of tangible asset is a solution of the problem Uniform presentation of financial performance: investors make investment decision based on the financial performance of any firm. In the situation, if the firms follow different standard to represent profitability then it becomes misleading for the investors. Following a uniform standard for reporting can resolve the problem (Lammle, ,2005) Adopting uniformity in the accounting standard offers the society the following three benefits: 1. Uniform accounting standard offers the benefit of economics of scale. Standard once are set, the cost of adding additions user is zero 2. The auditors tasks get easy because all the financial institutions follow uniform policy and procedure for reporting 3. Comparability can be made which reduce the cost of the firms contracting each other Extended cross border transactions: nowadays cross border transaction has been increased. Information about the foreign products and the financial information of the business are now available in internet. As a result, investors invest in foreign firms. In the situation uniform financial reporting gets very important (Buys, ,2011) Uniform financial reporting offers the investors the following benefits: IFRS standards offer a more accurate presentation of the financial data than that of the national standards. Information of some firms is not readily available. In the situation uniformity in accounting standard reduce risks in decision making Usually small investors cannot evaluate all the information than that of professionals. Following the IFRS standard improves the quality of information which ultimately gives the investors more information for access Following the uniform accounting standard serves the purpose of comparability and information accessibility cost gets reduced In IFRS standard emphasis is given for the comparability of information and it becomes more accessible. So integrating the entire world standard with IFRS yields the investors the above benefits. Some other passive pros of uniform accounting standard are as follows: Improve usefulness of financial data Increase transparency which ultimately benefits stakeholders The above two factors tend to reduce agency costs of the firms The above are some of the benefits of harmonization of the accounting standard. The process of harmonization is fueled by the process of globalization. As transactions occurs across national boundaries, there create a need for uniform accounting standard. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world, transactions cross national boundaries. As a result uniformity in reporting financial data gets very important. IFRS standard plays a vital role in the process of harmonization and many of the European nations follow IFRS. In the process an initiative is taken by USA to harmonize GAAP with IFRS. (HINES, ,2005) Arguments against uniform financial reporting Uniformity in financial reporting is made at the expense of the society. Culture differs in different nations, as a result in the process of uniform accounting reporting cultural aspects are considered. Economic condition of different nations also varies, for example- some are big, and some are small. Uniformity ignores the judgments of the professionals. The process also discourages research in the field and also discourages different ways of financial reporting. Shortcomings of uniform financial reporting are as follows: (Sunder, ,2007) Application of the concept uniformity: the concept of uniformity can never be defined specifically so that the standard setters can apply it in financial reporting. For example- in case of reporting the R D expenditure, management discretion is ignored. In recording the expenditure economic nature of the firm is considered. But the economic condition of the firms is not feasible in many cases. As a result, the uniformity issues creates problem Social norms: the process of uniformity in accounting standard barely considers the issues like cultural, social and political differences in the nations. As a result the process of implementation is affected largely. (Madawaki, ,2012) In applying the standard in the society the standard setters face the following three problems related with the practice in the society: 1. Information problem: in the process of developing standards, the stand makers have very little information about the social circumstances. Standard are set to replace the previous one but the process is very complex. Involvement in the social norms provide more information which is largely ignored in the process 2. Problem in design the standard: in designing standard, it becomes very important to attain representation, impartiality and consistency. The professionals set the standard may not be impartial. In the process, the influencing stakeholders try to influence the standard setting for their benefit. This influence distorts the proper standard setting of the standard setting body. 3. The gaming problem: the development of the standard alters the decision environment of the business firms. Standard also paves some new opportunities. The standard setters do not possess all the information for desired chances as a result misunderstanding arises. The standard setters should ensure that the standards ensure the mutual understanding between the standard setters and the business firms Legal situation of a nation: in the cases where standard is conflicting the low of the nation the jurisdiction of the nation imply it invalid to impose Education and research: in the process of uniformity new standards are set. As a result, the professional teams of the standard setting body have to train the local the professionals in the new standards. In the educational programs also the subject concern with the topic should be amended. This means that the whole system such as: educational materials, accounting software, reporting system all have to be restructured (Agrawal, ,1987) The process of uniformity is questioned by the dominance of some countries. Many nations argue that the head of IASB is the representative of USA. It is a major defense against the standard setting process. In some cases, the judgmental areas of the business firms vary. In the situations, uniformity is somehow impossible. Harmonizing standard with the US GAAP in the uniform of standard is also a major shortcoming. Recommendation The process of harmonization of the two standard setting bodies FASB and IASB has already been started. The process benefits the transactions across national border. Cost of providing information is also reduced. In the situation the process can be successful if it can maintain the following standards: (Barbu, ,2007) To cope with the changing global marketplace, the standard setting body should update the accounting standard in a regular basis and should communicate it with the related parties for implementation The standard setting body should be private and independent to avoid any political pressure of the government which ultimately ensures democracy. In case of governmental standard setting body, there is a chance to be biased in formulating accounting standard In setting the standard the economic variety of the nations should be considered There should be some areas for professional judgment because of the economic variety of the nations To implement the process of uniformity a monitoring sell should be developed. The department oversees the maintenance of the accounting standard. If any nation does not follow the prescribed standard then the department can panelize the nation (Buchanan, ,2007) Conclusion The process of harmonization gets appeal of the international community in the last ten years. The process gets accelerated by the Europeans as they are currently following IAS and IFRS for financial reporting. United States is also a pioneer in the issue by creating a bridge with the international standard with GAAP. In the process the stakeholders gets advantaged by sharing a uniform financial reporting. The cross border relationship is emerged in a new horizon now. The audit process gets the justification in the harmonization process.Ã But the process is not without some problems also. The process reduces the independent judgment of the auditors. The major stakeholders also influence the standard setting process. An independent private standard setting body is a possible solution to the problem. Uniformity of Accounting Standard and Conceptual Framework free essay sample Uniformity of Accounting Standard and Conceptual Framework Executive summery Harmonization of the accounting standard and conceptual framework is emerging as a requirement for of the international community. As business cross national boundaries so the transecting parties need uniformity in the financial reporting for better understanding of the business conditions. The process of harmonization gets accelerated by the initiative of the two major standard setting body of the world IASB and FASB. Although the two authoritative bodies try to uniform the accounting standard but the major concern arises here is the biasness of the influencing nations. In the assignment, pros of the harmonization process is discussed which is essential for international business community. The process is also disturbed by taking into account no consideration of the society and judgment of the professionals. In the assignment some recommendations are made for accelerating the harmonization process. Contents Introduction Economics and politics are the two major elements that shape the accounting standard of a nation. We will write a custom essay sample on Uniformity of Accounting Standard and Conceptual Framework or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As each and every nation varies in their economic condition, customized accounting standard gets its appeal. Nowadays business is not confined in the national boundaries. With the integration of the worldwide market and the economic forces the process harmonizing the accounting standard has become an emerging issue. In the process independent rather than governmental organization is most appropriate. If we account for the advantages and disadvantages of the harmonization process then in the pros side of the ledger high quality standard of the FASB is the achievement and in the cons side I will posted the biasness of the standard setters. The process reduces the cost of the international community because adding an additional member in the process tends to zero marginal cost of standard setters. Why uniformity in the accounting standard and conceptual framework? With the widespread integration of the markets and policies all over the world, nowadays it becomes inevitable for the financial institutions all over the world to follow a uniform standard for financial reporting. Following the high quality accounting standard tends to a higher standard financial reporting. The pros for informing standard all over the world are as follows: (Ball, ,2005) Maintaining uniformity in financial data presentation: standards are set to guide the contracts of the financial institutions. In the case, if the financial reporting of the entities is different, it causes problem for both the contracting parties in the maintenance of the conditions of the contracts. For example- Company X lends money from Bank Y on the condition that landed amount must not exceed 60% of the total tangible. In the situation valuation techniques of the firms are different then it affects the contract adversely. So following a uniform standard for valuation of tangible asset is a solution of the problem Uniform presentation of financial performance: investors make investment decision based on the financial performance of any firm. In the situation, if the firms follow different standard to represent profitability then it becomes misleading for the investors. Following a uniform standard for reporting can resolve the problem (Lammle, ,2005) Adopting uniformity in the accounting standard offers the society the following three benefits: 1. Uniform accounting standard offers the benefit of economics of scale. Standard once are set, the cost of adding additions user is zero 2. The auditors tasks get easy because all the financial institutions follow uniform policy and procedure for reporting 3. Comparability can be made which reduce the cost of the firms contracting each other Extended cross border transactions: nowadays cross border transaction has been increased. Information about the foreign products and the financial information of the business are now available in internet. As a result, investors invest in foreign firms. In the situation uniform financial reporting gets very important (Buys, ,2011) Uniform financial reporting offers the investors the following benefits: IFRS standards offer a more accurate presentation of the financial data than that of the national standards. Information of some firms is not readily available. In the situation uniformity in accounting standard reduce risks in decision making Usually small investors cannot evaluate all the information than that of professionals. Following the IFRS standard improves the quality of information which ultimately gives the investors more information for access Following the uniform accounting standard serves the purpose of comparability and information accessibility cost gets reduced In IFRS standard emphasis is given for the comparability of information and it becomes more accessible. So integrating the entire world standard with IFRS yields the investors the above benefits. Some other passive pros of uniform accounting standard are as follows: Improve usefulness of financial data Increase transparency which ultimately benefits stakeholders The above two factors tend to reduce agency costs of the firms The above are some of the benefits of harmonization of the accounting standard. The process of harmonization is fueled by the process of globalization. As transactions occurs across national boundaries, there create a need for uniform accounting standard. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business world, transactions cross national boundaries. As a result uniformity in reporting financial data gets very important. IFRS standard plays a vital role in the process of harmonization and many of the European nations follow IFRS. In the process an initiative is taken by USA to harmonize GAAP with IFRS. (HINES, ,2005) Arguments against uniform financial reporting Uniformity in financial reporting is made at the expense of the society. Culture differs in different nations, as a result in the process of uniform accounting reporting cultural aspects are considered. Economic condition of different nations also varies, for example- some are big, and some are small. Uniformity ignores the judgments of the professionals. The process also discourages research in the field and also discourages different ways of financial reporting. Shortcomings of uniform financial reporting are as follows: (Sunder, ,2007) Application of the concept uniformity: the concept of uniformity can never be defined specifically so that the standard setters can apply it in financial reporting. For example- in case of reporting the R D expenditure, management discretion is ignored. In recording the expenditure economic nature of the firm is considered. But the economic condition of the firms is not feasible in many cases. As a result, the uniformity issues creates problem Social norms: the process of uniformity in accounting standard barely considers the issues like cultural, social and political differences in the nations. As a result the process of implementation is affected largely. (Madawaki, ,2012) In applying the standard in the society the standard setters face the following three problems related with the practice in the society: 1. Information problem: in the process of developing standards, the stand makers have very little information about the social circumstances. Standard are set to replace the previous one but the process is very complex. Involvement in the social norms provide more information which is largely ignored in the process 2. Problem in design the standard: in designing standard, it becomes very important to attain representation, impartiality and consistency. The professionals set the standard may not be impartial. In the process, the influencing stakeholders try to influence the standard setting for their benefit. This influence distorts the proper standard setting of the standard setting body. 3. The gaming problem: the development of the standard alters the decision environment of the business firms. Standard also paves some new opportunities. The standard setters do not possess all the information for desired chances as a result misunderstanding arises. The standard setters should ensure that the standards ensure the mutual understanding between the standard setters and the business firms Legal situation of a nation: in the cases where standard is conflicting the low of the nation the jurisdiction of the nation imply it invalid to impose Education and research: in the process of uniformity new standards are set. As a result, the professional teams of the standard setting body have to train the local the professionals in the new standards. In the educational programs also the subject concern with the topic should be amended. This means that the whole system such as: educational materials, accounting software, reporting system all have to be restructured (Agrawal, ,1987) The process of uniformity is questioned by the dominance of some countries. Many nations argue that the head of IASB is the representative of USA. It is a major defense against the standard setting process. In some cases, the judgmental areas of the business firms vary. In the situations, uniformity is somehow impossible. Harmonizing standard with the US GAAP in the uniform of standard is also a major shortcoming. Recommendation The process of harmonization of the two standard setting bodies FASB and IASB has already been started. The process benefits the transactions across national border. Cost of providing information is also reduced. In the situation the process can be successful if it can maintain the following standards: (Barbu, ,2007) To cope with the changing global marketplace, the standard setting body should update the accounting standard in a regular basis and should communicate it with the related parties for implementation The standard setting body should be private and independent to avoid any political pressure of the government which ultimately ensures democracy. In case of governmental standard setting body, there is a chance to be biased in formulating accounting standard In setting the standard the economic variety of the nations should be considered There should be some areas for professional judgment because of the economic variety of the nations To implement the process of uniformity a monitoring sell should be developed. The department oversees the maintenance of the accounting standard. If any nation does not follow the prescribed standard then the department can panelize the nation (Buchanan, ,2007) Conclusion The process of harmonization gets appeal of the international community in the last ten years. The process gets accelerated by the Europeans as they are currently following IAS and IFRS for financial reporting. United States is also a pioneer in the issue by creating a bridge with the international standard with GAAP. In the process the stakeholders gets advantaged by sharing a uniform financial reporting. The cross border relationship is emerged in a new horizon now. The audit process gets the justification in the harmonization process.Ã But the process is not without some problems also. The process reduces the independent judgment of the auditors. The major stakeholders also influence the standard setting process. An independent private standard setting body is a possible solution to the problem.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Equity in the Academic Labor Market Introduction The issue of equity in academic labor market has been already discussed by a number of people.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Equity in the Academic Labor Market specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reasons of this investigation vary considerably: some researchers find it necessary to define the conditions under which academic disciplines may be considerably improved, some people want to introduce better conditions in a particular labor market, and in some investigations, the idea of gender and racial inequality turns out to be a rather significant question that has to be solved within a short period of time. During the last decade, several American researchers offer their ideas concerning the improvement of the conditions under which equity in academic labor market may be promoted, still, the analysis of academic disciplines shows that the necessary changes do not take place accordingly so tha t working conditions are improved. This is why it seems to be obligatory not to develop some new ideas and methods to solve the already defined problem but try to make use of the offered ideas and evaluate their effectiveness from a variety of perspectives. This is why the idea to use secondary research methods to investigate the equity in academic labor market and introduce the analysis of academic disciplines is considered to be powerful indeed. The evaluation of the already implemented hierarchical linear model (Umbach, 2007), certain analysis of academia population (Mayer Tikka, 2008), and attention to the data offered by the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (Xu, 2007) will help to define the problems in academic labor market and propose the solutions which will be more appropriate to a particular population. Method and Design Description Taking into consideration the fact that the equity in the academic labor market has been already investigated by a number of researche rs, it is possible to rely on the secondary research method that aims at synthesizing and evaluating the already existing thoughts and material on the chosen topic. The data sources for the chosen method are considered to be the surveys offered by National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) and the articles where the required investigations are described.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The point is that gender inequality is the issue that bothers many people as female attempts to gain equity seem to be not comparable for women in each district of the USA as poor, less-educated women or the women of color cannot get an access to the gains which are available to white, rich, and properly educated women (Richardson Sandoval, 2007). The investigations of Umbach (2009) help to understand that market segmentation is considered to be an important aspect of sex differ ences which may be observed at the academic labor market because women have to work under poorer conditions characterized by lower prestige. The worth of the use of the hierarchical linear modeling has been already checked by such researchers like Umbach and Seifert (2007), this is why it is possible to focus on the same model to evaluate certain individual characteristics and their relation to academic salaries. In other words, some contextual effects which are inherent to academic disciplines and faculty salary equity will be taken into consideration (Umbach, 2007). Integration of the information from different sources will allow creating a clear background with the help of which the current diversity of academic people may be described. Equity in academia is regarded as unsolved issue, this is why any type of contribution to this sphere of life will become crucial. Strengths of the Chosen Method One of the powerful aspects of the chosen method is that certain attention is paid to the already identified problems and challenges. There is no need to conduct research to understand that is wrong with the academic disciplines and equity in the labor market. Several sufficient researchers have already admit that the number of women who may earn certification in the required education administration does not correspond to the national level, still, the results of the evaluation of the existing preparatory programs prove that women are more eager to gain knowledge in the academic sphere (Shakeshaft et al., 2007).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Equity in the Academic Labor Market specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The results of their investigations prove that women do face certain problems in the labor market, and the identification of the reasons of why so many people cannot solve the problem help to understand why the chosen concept is still under discussions. One more strong aspect of the method and the design under consideration is connected to the status of American women on the world arena. Women have to be invited to the academic staff, still, the already introduced gender stereotypes and social conditions under which women have to enter the labor market are not as successful as meant to be. Finally, the last strength of the envisioned method is that the current achievements in analyzing information should help to gain better understanding of the material offered by the researchers mentioned above. Time factor plays a very important role as people get more opportunities to investigate their possibilities and their achievements in different spheres. This is why it is not only better to use the offered secondary research method and focus on the already introduced findings but also more appropriate to learn what is already offered to society and make use of the achievements. Appropriateness of the Design Research design offered in this project will help to hold all the findings together. It should show the way of how the main parts of the project should be organized and the conditions which should be created for the research. The analysis of up-to-date literature, identification of the weaknesses in the sphere under consideration, and implementation of new ideas should encourage the researchers to develop new ideas and introduce new solutions of the old problems. The point is that equity in the academic labor market has been already identified as a problem to be solved, and the analysis of academic disciplines as well as the role of gender and racial factors should be re-evaluated. Stromquist (2007) admits that Ã¢â¬Å"education is related positively to individual, community, and national benefitsÃ¢â¬ from a pure human capital perspective (p. 33).Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It seems rational to consider the reasons of why someone may think that the educational system is not perfect. Then, it is possible to underline the challenges possible in the academic labor market. And finally, it is necessary to use the already made achievements and the worth of the hierarchical linear model and apply this material to introduce some new ideas and suggestions on how the role of women as well as some other types of inequality should be solved in society. Weaknesses of the envisioned method and design In addition to the already identified strong aspects of the project, there is a list of weaknesses which have to be elaborated to achieve better results in the chosen investigation. Equity in the academic labor market and the analysis of academic disciplines should help to solve the problems because of which many people suffer nowadays. Unfortunately, it is not possible to implement the offered ideas in different countries, this is why such developed countries like the USA or China will get more chances to improve the conditions under which the labor market may be developed, and a number of developing countries fail to take the same steps. One more shortage of the chosen method is based on the lack of primary sources. On the one hand, it is beneficial to use the findings of professionals and be sure of their quality. On the other hand, the chosen method is not as powerful as it could be due to inabilities to make certain improvements during the analysis itself. There is a list of conditions which have to be taken into consideration, and there is no possibility to add some new components to the research. Justification of the Chosen Method and Design Alternative methods Among the existing variety of alternative methods which may be applied to investigate the chosen question, primary research such as interviews with the representatives of academic labor market or evaluation of the documents which describe difference academic disciplines and their pec uliarities. Still, such methods seem to be less desirable as certain findings have been already fixed but fewer positive achievements are defined. This is why it seems to be more appropriate to make use of the already gained material, consider the thoughts of professional researchers, and focus on equity that is so important in the academic labor market. Communication with direct representatives of the labor market as well as some empirical methods is possible, however, such methods require more time and efforts to be used. In addition, the choice of such alternative methods may promote some doubts on the ideas offered by Umbach or Mayer. Still, there are many people who support the ideas of these researchers, this is why it is more reasonable to make use of their suggestions and thoughts. Weakness of alternative methods The main weakness of the chosen alternative methods is inability to find appropriate evidences. It is possible to interview on group of people at the academic labor market, still, it is hard to prove that other representatives of the chosen labor market face the same challenges. A number of factors have to be taken into consideration, and it is challenging to create some new programs which promote the development of equity. This is why it is possible to use model programs and equitable assessment tools offered earlier (Nash et al., 2007) and pay more attention on the development of quality tools instead of searching some new aspects of old problems. The offered alternative methods have been already used in the middle of the 20th century. As soon as civil rights movement appeared in the middle of the 1960s (Toutkoushian, Bellas, Moore, 2007), people wanted to get to know why employers, who perform equal amounts of work, have to receive different salaries being the same representatives of the labor market. This is why the main weakness of the alternative methods Ã¢â¬â past experience proved that some problems may appear during the investigat ion of the chosen issue, and it is better to concentrate on the already got data and try to improve the conditions within a short period of time. Success of the offered methodology The success of the offered methodology is predetermined by several factors. First of all, it is easy to find powerful evidence of the chosen ideas. The support of such researchers like Umbach proves that the chosen way of analysis is beneficial indeed. Another important aspect of the research is the attention to HLM with the help of which it is possible to evaluate the role of human capital and certain structural characteristics of different disciplines. And finally, the offered ideas should help to improve the discipline outcomes and their role in the labor market. Statistical models are not integral nowadays as they do not introduce a clear and definite solution of the problem. And the chosen method and design should promote a new stage with the help of which it is possible to define the steps by means of which people will get a chance to achieve the required equity. Conclusion In general, the theme of equity in the academic labor market seems to be rather important and influential. In fact, the quality of life is defined by the conditions under which people get and give education. If some mistakes take place in the educational system, it is obligatory to eliminate them within a short period of time. However, a number of past investigations show that certain attempts and ideas are offered still cannot be elaborated accordingly. This is why it is necessary to take into consideration the already got data, evaluate the findings in the chosen sphere of life, and think about the improvements which may be done on the provided basis. There is no need to create some innovative approaches but focus on what is already offered and try to improve the academic market. The analysis of academic disciplines in the United States should be organized on the researches conducted from 2007 to 2009. Re ference List Mayer, A.J. Tikka, P.M. (2008, November). Family-friendly policies and gender bias in academia. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 30(4), 363-374. Nash, M.A., Klein, S.S., Bitters, B., Hobbs, S., Hotre, W.A., Shevtz., L., Wbarton, L. (2007). The role of government in advancing gender equity in education. In S.S. Klein (Eds.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 62-102). Mahwah: Routledge. Richardson, B. Sandoval, P. (2007). Impact of education on gender equity in employment and its outcomes. In S.S. Klein (Eds.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 43-58). Mahwah: Routledge. Seifert, T. Umach, P. (2008, June). The effects of faculty demographic characteristics and disciplinary context on dimensions of job satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 49(4), 357-381. Shakeshaft, C., Brown, G., Irby, B.I., Grogan, M., Ballenger, J. (2007). Increasing gender equity in educational leadership. In S.S. Klein (E ds.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 103-130). Mahwah: Routledge. Stromquist, N. P. (2007). Gender equity education globally. In S.S. Klein (Eds.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (pp. 33-42). Mahwah: Routledge. Toutkoushian, R.K., Bellas, M.L., Moore, J.V. (2007, October). The interaction effects of gender, race, and marital status on faculty salaries. Journal of Higher Education, 78(5), p. 572-601. Umbach, P.D. (2007, March). Gender equity in the academic labor market: An analysis of academic disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 48(2), 169-192. Umbach, P.D. (2009, November). Sex segregation in academic labor markets and equity in faculty pay. Paper is published at the 34th Annual Conference of ASHE, Ralegh, NC, Xu, Y.J. (2007, May). Gender disparity in STEM disciplines: A study of faculty attrition and turnover intentions. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 607-624.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Armegeddon essays There will come a time when all souls cannot escape from salvation. It is then, that because of this , the universe will ultimately collapse. Afterward all souls will be depressed again to live a lifetime where they have shackles forever. When a particular place in the universe has cooled life shall emerge, although it will be many years before This so describes the Hindu invision of the end of times in which the universe that includes everything is destroyed and then it is recreated again. It is important because many people believe Hinduism is responsible for the basis of other religions such as Buddhism, Sikkhism and Jainism which is clearly seen , as all three believe in many of the same theories such as reincarnation. For many of these people there is no true Armageddon only the repeat blooming and distraction of the universe by different types of gods. This makes me wonder if these people see Armageddon in such a different angle then conventional christians. How do the people of Confucianism , Marxism or any of the oriental religions perceive the end of The fact is, many of the so called religions out there do not have gods or prayer because there would be no need , rather they are only a philosophies on how people should live their lives . One example would be Confucianism which is predominately an Asian religion that started in the Chon Dynasty years 1122-897 B.C. The religion was founded by a man named Confucius who supported a project called the ritual music culture, that more or less was set up by the government of China to control the various tribes that inhabited the yellow river by giving them a culture that they all shared in common . This form of idealism unfortunately was rejected. The man named Confucius traveled all over China trying to persuade people to accept the ritual music culture , however some ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Immigration vs the NASW Code of Ethics - Essay Example In essence, most of the professional fields have stipulated particular consequences in form of fines and penalties that should be imposed on anyone who does not adhere to the ethical conducts. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) is the social workerÃ¢â¬â¢s professional organization in the United States. However, not all workers belong to the NASW. The organization has stipulated principles and values that all members adhere. The enshrined values aim to promoting the social aspects within society. The NASW code of ethics advocates for equality and justice to all. However, the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s current policy on immigration has remained the most controversial aspect that contravenes the tenets of the National Association of Social Workers. North America is known as the land of immigrants because unlike any other nation, it receives millions of immigrants annually, and this has labeled the United States as the melting Pot in the globe. The proposals such as Tax ation Laws, Prosecuting Illegal Immigrants, H4 visa Program and the H-1B Visa Program, put forward in the much-awaited amendment of the immigration policy contravene the basic values of a social workerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. However, proposals such as the Life Adjustment Program, Legalization of Undocumented Immigrants and W-visa Program promote the values of a social worker. ... This paper seeks to examine the core values and principles of NASWÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics and compare them to the 1986 immigration legislation and its current policies and procedures of enforcement. This comparison will guide a detailed discussion of what changes in policy should be included as the Congress contemplates new immigration legislation in relation to the social workerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. As point of departure, the illegal entry has taken place for a long time and indeed, during the 1986 amnesty, almost 12 million illegal immigrants were in the United States forming 5% of the entire work force (Washingtonpost.com, 2013). This statistics indicates severe situation, since the statistics are overwhelming. This might have contributed to the stringent immigration policy, which the social workerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective does not support. The issue of immigration is a national problem to the US government and an international challenge across other countries. A bill was passed in the U.S. known as Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986,and became a law, which made legal the hiring and recruitment of illegal immigrantsÃ¢â¬ (Washingtonpost.com, 2013). According to Goodman, (2013), comparison of this law with the NASW, evidences that, the law enshrines tough regulations that turned out to be inhuman. The NASW has fine ethical code of conduct that is contrary to the regulations of the Act. Other reforms made in the immigration policy in the past have consistently contradicted this code of conduct. Denial of certain rights to certain group of people is considered inhuman, since it violates the basic human rights. It will be a win situation for the members and proponents
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Homelessness - Essay Example I have found many people around me who forced to spend their final days of their lives in rescue homes even though they have enormous wealth. An old age couple who was staying near my home forced to transfer their lives to a near rescue home recently since they failed to get enough attention from their parents. These couple had huge wealth, but their children were working abroad. They failed to get enough protection from their children and finally forced to take shelter in a rescue home conducting by a charitable trust. In another case, I have seen a person forced to live in a rented house because of unemployment. The recent recession resulted in this person losing his job. He forced to sell his house in order to repay some of his debts and forced to shift to a small rented house with his wife and two children. Before recession itself, they were struggling to find their livelihood. When we analyze both the cases mentioned above, we can see that the homelessness problem is due to structural reasons rather than the individual reasons. Unemployment, poverty, lack of affordable housing, housing policies etc are some of the structural reasons commonly cited by many sociologists for homelessness (What causes homelessness?). But in the first case given above, we can see that the family set up forced the couple to take shelter in rescue homes. Kendall (2008) mentioned that people like to form groups to meet instrumental and expressive needs. Instrumental or task oriented needs cannot be met by one persona alone, so the group work cooperatively to fulfill the goal. Moreover small groups are better for all the members to acquaint well and to interact simultaneously (Kendall, p.151-152). The first case given above can be analyzed with respect to the above perspective. As per the current trends, people like to live in nuclear families, a family with husband, wife and one or two children. It is difficult for them to accommodate more
Sunday, November 17, 2019
New Emission Standards Essay One of the growing Threats to Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s reign of dominance in US markets has been a growing awareness of the environment. In response to this, the bar for emission standards is continuously raised. In 2010 model year or newer motorcycles emission standards for both HC + NOx were reduced from 1.4 prior to 2010 to just 0.8 after 2010 (US Government Printing Office. 2013). For at least 5 years now, there have been rumors circulating that Harley Davidson would abandon the traditional air cooled designs in favor of a new liquid cooled lineup in response to ever growing emission standards (Huze. 2011). If emission control standards continue to tighten, Harley Davidson may be forced to do exactly that. Procurement of Raw Materials Historically, Harley Davidson has relied on limited number of suppliers for raw materials to provide the components used in its manufacturing plants. In some cases, the entire companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business is dependent on just one supplier to deliver certain raw materials in time. The lack of versatility in this area means that rising input costs could lead to capacity issues in the long run. Additionally, increasing costs for commodities could lead to capacity constraints, ultimately leading to lower production (Harley Davidson, Inc. 2012). Competitive Landscape Currently, Harley Davidson holds 56% of the market share for heavyweight motorcycles, defined as those motorcycles that displace more than 650cc. To some this may be an impenetrable advantage in the market, to other, a source of vulnerability (Taylor III, 2012). For years, Harley has been the undisputed king of the Ã¢â¬Å"bad boysÃ¢â¬ , but in recent years up and coming companies such as Polaris are trying to muscle in to the motorcycle arena. Polaris, a company known for its snow mobiles has only recently begun selling motorcycles 14 years ago (Taylor III, 2012). Polaris has shown that it understands what its buyers want and has demonstrated success in achieving higher sales through its colorful names such as Victory, 8-Ball, and Jackpot lineup. With aggressive pricing strategies and comparable quality, Polaris has quickly passed foreign competitors such as Honda, Yamaha, and Kawasaki and is now setting its eyes on Harley Davidson after its recent acquisition of Indian. Harley Davidson Ã¢â¬â Opportunities (O) Global Expansion In response to declining domestic sales, Harley Davidson has decided to expand its global presence in China and India. In 1995 Harley Davidson entered the Hong Kong market, opening its first mainland China office just 10 years later in 2005 (Miller. 2012). Currently, Harley has 8 full service dealerships in china and have plans to open an additional 5 more within the next 5 years. HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest challenges have been the understanding of foreign markets. In China for example, the motorcycle market was riddled with low cost economic alternatives for daily transportation. The average engine size ranges anywhere from just 50cc to 600c. With some of HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s heavyweights tipping the scales in the range of 800c to 1600cc beasts, the concept of heavyweight leisure riding was simply not understood yet in foreign markets. Harley would have to start from the ground up if it wants to succeed. Today, Harley has succeeded in growing its international presence in over 70 countries across the globe. Although growth into international markets has been substantial, there is still significant room for further expansion (Miller. 2012). New Product Launches Another area of opportunity for Harley Davidson lies in the arena of launching new products. In 2014 Harley expects to launch eight new models, a record number of new models within the same year. Harley realized that with the baby boomer generation coming to a close, younger audiences will demand new and innovative products. The company, now in its 110th year of operation, has launched a customer driven product development program dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Project RushmoreÃ¢â¬ in hopes of succeeding in understanding what design elements are appreciated more by younger buyers (UPI.com. 2013). If they succeed, Harley could feasibly further expand its market share in both US and international markets significantly. Restructuring Plans The Milwaukee based motorcycle maker has succeeded in keeping its full-year shipment forecast intact despite signs of weakness in dealer sales in several markets (Reuters. 2013). In response to this, Harley Davidson has acknowledged the need to restructure the company into a leaner and more cost efficient beast if it is to maintain its market share and keep pace with the competition. Harley hopes to reduce the number of defaults on their loans, improve the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flows, and improve its liquidation strategy by having at least 12 months of projected liquidity in cash reserves. The company has set an ambitious goal to continue to widen its gross margin figures by nearly a full two percent in 2013 (Reuters. 2013). Harley Recognized that declining retail sales figures could no longer be simply shrugged off as weather related anomalies but were rather a generational decline of the number of loyal riders in the market. This suggests that younger riderÃ¢â¬â¢s between the ages of 18-34 are quickly becoming a significant portion of the market. Harley would need to restructure its operations in order to meet the demands of these new riders and develop both a strategy and a product that would appeal to them. Harley Davidson Ã¢â¬â Weakness (W) Product Recall Issues In late 2011, Harley Davidson recalled more than 300,000 motorcycles to fix a switch problem that presented a safety issue. The switch prevented the brake lights from coming on and could potentially cause the brakes themselves to fail as well (Associated Press. 2011). The defect has already caused at least one crash. As a result, the US Securities and Exchange Commission indicated that they expect that this recall will cost Harley anywhere from 10 to 12 Million Dollars. This coupled with another recall in 2012 for a faulty voltage regulator that affected an estimated 100,000 owners suggests that recalls are costing Harley a sizable chunk of their annual budget. Defects reasons have been tracked back to supplier quality issues arising in the manufacturing production chain. Dependence of Domestic Market Harley Davidson has recently celebrated its 110th year of business within the US. From its onset, it was clear that HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s target market was first and foremost the US markets. Much of HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s success has stemmed from targeting the baby boomer generation and appealing to big open spaces, the idea of freedom, and the feeling of exclusivity and belonging. Although business has steadily increased for Harley over the past century, it is clear that change is on the horizon. HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s competition is ever more aware of foreign markets and consistently devising entry strategies to further expand global market share (Burkey, 2009). Simply put, Harley has been lagging in this area. HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s flagship motorcycles carry a significantly higher price tag than foreign competing models making them appealing only to small elite group of riders that can afford the expense. Harley Davidson Ã¢â¬â Strengths (S) Brand Image Few people cannot instantly recognize the Harley Davidson brand. For over a century now, Harley Davidson has built a positive brand image by targeting a wide range of individuals. Harley Davidson has been continuously ranked among the top global brands in the world, holds over half of the heavyweight motorcycle market share in the US, and is ranked either first or second in the heavyweight motorcycle segment in at least nine countries across Europe (Harley Davidson, Inc. 2012). Historically, Harley Davidson has historically appealed to wide predominantly male audience ranging in ages from early 30s to late 50s. Recently, Harley Davidson has decided to further expand the brand by beginning successful marketing campaigns targeted at an audience of women. With the majority of its ads targeting a relatively specific group of individuals, Harley-Davidson has been able to build a community of enthusiasts around its brand that includes members from very diverse groups, and with almost no advertising. How does the king of heavyweight motorcycling keep its fans so loyal? It gives them a reason to belong (Rifkin. 1997). The symbolism of Ã¢â¬Å"belongingÃ¢â¬ is a powerful one reinforced by images of riding as part of a pack on the open road. This is further reinforced by a strong positive brand image that individuals frequently associate with superior quality and prestige of ownership. Broad Product and Service Portfolio One of Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest strengths has been a long history of maintaining a broad product and service portfolio. Harley Davidson leverages its premium pricing model supported by a superior quality of its product line up ranging from an extensive line up of heavyweight, touring, custom, and performance motorcycles. Harley Davidson has also been able to successfully keep its owners engaged in personalizing and modifying their motorcycles by offering an extensive catalogue of parts and customization options. When you add the reliability of a two year warranty, and consider the superior level of service afforded to its owners, it is no wonder that Harley Davidson has been able to maintain the upper hand on its competition for so many years. The financial unit of the company has been successful in reducing the percentage of defaults and losses on its in house loans. While the annualized loss experienced on its managed retail motorcycle loans has come down from 1.58% to 1% in the last quarter, the retail 30+ day delinquencies on managed loans has come down from 3.68% to 2.56% (Trefis Team. 2012). Focused Research Harley Davidson continues to dominate market share in the United States commanding over 60% market share for the domestic market. Although Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s targeting of the youth market remains a subject of contention, their strategy remains crystal clear; to keep baby boomers in the saddle for as long as possible (Madson, 2013). To achieve this, Harley Davidson is exploring some concepts that may appeal to aging baby boomers such as a three wheeled Penster concept. The Trike concept has gained remarkable traction over the past few years and Harley Davidson has certainly taken notice. Harley Davidson Strengths and Opportunities (SO) Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s offensive strategy should focus on leveraging the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths such as its strong brand image and focused research and development to capitalize on opportunities such as further penetration into foreign markets. Harley Davidson is uniquely positioned with a globally recognized brand. This is a monumental advantage when comparing it to penetration strategies from relatively new motorcycle companies such as Polaris. Harley can utilize its strong focused research and development to study foreign market demands and develop a line of products to specifically appeal to that market. This would further help Harley in overcoming another one of its areas of opportunity around new product launches. Recently, Harley Davidson has shown significant progress in their expansion to the Chinese marketplace. Harley projects that within the next five years growing Chinese demand will support the opening of an additional 5 dealerships overseas (Miller. 2012). Growing global demand is proof that not only would this be a good business decision, but it is the necessary next step if Harley expects to keep up with its competition. Harley Davidson Strengths and Threats (ST) Harley Davidson faces some significant threats to its business in the form of changing emission standards for motorcycles, and an ever growing competitive landscape. Emission controls continue to tighten on a global scale making Harleys century long approach to air cooled engines all but obsolete (Huze. 2011). Furthermore, Harley faces some competitive threats from new entrants to the market like Polaris who are actively seeking to tap into HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s heavyweight motorcycle market share. Harley Davidson needs to develop a defensive strategy focusing on areas of strength such as focused research and development and broad product and service portfolio to ensure they overcome these threats. One solution would be a proactive approach to changing emission standards. Harley has been toying with the idea of introducing a lineup of liquid cooled motorcycles that would dramatically reduce their ecological footprint (Huze. 2011). Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s superior focused RD would have little issue with finding a way to adapt this new engine to existing models. Furthermore, the infrastructure for servicing these new engines, making adjustments, and maintaining them is already in place with is significant network of service centers around the globe. In doing so, they would not only be ready for any emission control changes that they may face in the future, but also be more competitive across product lines. Harley Davidson Weaknesses and Opportunities (WO) In recent years, Harley Davidson has literally spent millions of dollars dealing with significant recalls and associated issues (Associated Press. 2011). Most notably, two significant recalls that affected a total of more than 600,000 motorcycles over two years. Outside of the obvious cost associated with correcting the issue which is estimated to cost over 20MM over the course of 2009 and 2010, Harley Davidson is exposed to additional legal risk from possible accidents resulting from these defects (Associated Press. 2011). Harley has traced the source of the problem back to defects associated with its parts suppliers. This suggests the need for an improved quality control process prior to using the parts in production. Although this may present an additional cost initially, the reduction from costs associated with recalls off of Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line would be much more significant. Harley Davidson has already experienced success in its restructuring plans. The addition of inspection points could be seamlessly implemented with minimal impact to its existing business (Reuters. 2013). This would increase the chances of catching defects on parts prior to the parts being shipped to manufacturing. As a result, Harley would experience a reduction in the number of recalls in the coming years. Harley Davidson Weaknesses and Threats (WT) The combination of existing weaknesses to Harley DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s business and the presence of potential threats in the market could potentially spell disaster. Harley should develop a strategy around minimizing their exposure to weakness and the avoidance of existing threats. Harley can achieve this by outsourcing the procurement of raw materials to a larger number of overseas suppliers while being supervised by in-house Harley Davidson quality control specialists to ensure a sustained level of quality of their products (Burkey. 2009). This would help to avoid one of HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s largest weaknesses, product recalls, as well as dramatically improve the availability of raw materials minimizing the impact that one single supplier could potentially have on their business (Taylor III. 2012). Furthermore, the fewer amount of recalls and the overall improved degree of quality would bolster the already strong Harley Davidson brand, improving its position in the competitive marketplace (Rifkin. 1997). Citations Associated Press. (Oct. 2011). Harley Recalls About 308,000 Motorcycles For Break Issue. USA Today / Money. Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/manufacturing/story/2011-10-2 4/harley-davidson-brakes-recall/50890560/1 on September 18, 2013. Burkey, Brent. (Oct 2009). Harley-Davidson Time for the tough decisions A plan to restructure core local Harley operations is in the hands of the company.York Daily Record. P4. Harley Davidson, Inc. (Aug 2012). Harley-Davidson, Inc. Financial and Strategic Analysis Review. Global Data. P1-3. Harley Davidson, Inc. (Jun 2012). SWOT Analysis. Company Report. P1-9. P9. Huze, Cyril. (Jun 2011). 2012 Harley-Davidson Liquid Cooled Engines. Cyril Huze Post. Retrieved from: http://cyrilhuzeblog.com/2011/06/17/2012-harley-davidson-liquid-cooled-engines/ on September 17, 2013. Madson, Bart. (Feb. 2013). H-D RD Product Development Center. Motorcycleusa.com. Retrieved from: http://www.motorcycle-usa.com/684/15599/Motorcycle-Article/H-D-R-D-Product-Development-Center.aspx on September 18, 2013. Miller, Paula M. (Jan-Mar 2012). Harley Davidson in China. China Business Review. P41-43. PR Newswire. (Jul 2013). Harley Davidson Post Second-Quarter 2013 Earnings, Revenue and Retail Sales Growth. Regional Business News. P.16. Reuters. (2013). Harley Earnings On Target As Restructuring Pays Off. Chicago Business Tribune. Retrieved from: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-04-25/business/chi-harley-earnings-20130425_1_harley-davidson-inc-winnebago-industries-sales-volumes on September 17, 2013. Rifkin, Glenn. (Oct. 1997). How Harley Davidson Revs Its Brand. Strategy + Business. Retrieved from: http://www.strategy-business.com/article/12878?gko=ffaa3 on September 17, 2013. Taylor III, Alex. (Oct. 2012). The Hurdles At Harley Davidson. Motorworld. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2012/10/03/autos/harley-davidson-polaris.fortune/index.html on September 17, 2013. Trefis Team. (May. 2012). Harley Davidson Rides To $59 As Growth Hits On All Cylinders. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2012/05/03/harley-davidson-rides-to-59-as-growth-hits-on-all-cylinders/ on September 17, 2013. UPI.com.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1949, newly communist China sent 35,000 troops to invade Tibet (Tibet Support Group UK 1). The year after that a treaty was made. The treaty acknowledged sovereignty over Tibet, but recognized the Tibetan governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s autonomy with respect to internal affairs. The Chinese violated the treaty on many occasions, though. This lead to the National Uprising in 1959, and after that, the exile of the Dalai Lama, spiritual leader of Tibet, and many governmental leaders (Office of Tibet 1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During and after the Chinese invasion of Tibet, there was mass destruction of Tibetan buildings. Over 6,000 monasteries, temples and other cultural and historic buildings were destroyed. The contents of the thousands of buildings destroyed was taken back to China and sold (Office of Tibet 3). The Tibetan people tried to rebuild their country, but the political leader who tried to start the Ã¢â¬Å"recuperationÃ¢â¬ policy was forced to resign from office shortly after (Office of Tibet 2). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During the National Uprising alone 87,000 Tibetans were killed. Another 430,000 died in the fifteen years of guerilla warfare that followed. Sources also say that up to 260,000 have died in prisons and in labour camps (Tibet Support Group UK 3). Also, 200 unarmed civilians were killed during non-violent protests between 1987 and 1989. Overall 1,200,000 Tibetans have died since 1959. That is roughly one fifth of the population of Tibet (Office of Tibet 1). That does not include all of the deaths of Tibetans during the Chinese invasion, and all of those who froze to death trying to flee Tibet. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Tibetan people who survived the killing were denied what most consider primal freedoms. One of which is freedom of religion. Tibetan religious practice was forcibly suppressed until 1979 (Tibet Support Group UK 4). Also, in early 1989, Chinese authorities undertook a campaign to tighten control over religious practice. This campaign intensified the crackdown on the pro-democracy movement (Churchward 1). The campaign affected Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, and Buddhists. Another religious suppression on the part of the Chinese is that they have banned public celebrations of TibetÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Prayer Festival because China believed that it would lead to nationalist demonstrations (Churchward 2). Now all Tibetan churches, mosques, and temples must be registered, and to do so, they must meet official standards (Churchward 1). Also, the only people permitted to perform religious duties, according to Document #19, are those who after examination are deemed Ã¢â¬ Å"politically reliable, patriotic, and law-abidingÃ¢â¬ (Churchward 3).
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
There are 12 basic principles to Information Security. The first principle is that there is no such thing as absolute security. What this means is that with the correct tolls, skills and time anyone can hack into a system. The second principle are the three security goals, which are C. I. A; Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. What this means is that everyone must consider what data they want to be protected.It also means that one must be sure as to whom they want to access this information and when they should access this information. The third principle is when a company is protecting their data with armed guards, cameras, safes and secured passwords. This principle is called Defense In Depth. The fourth principle is when people are left alone they tend to make the worst decisions. Function and Requirements is the fifth principle for information security.Function details what the system should be doing and the assurance requirements describe how the functions should be imp lemented. The following two questions should be asked when this principle comes into play; does the system do the right thing? Does the system do the right things and in the right way. The sixth principle is that Security through Obscurity is Not an Answer. This principle simply means that if you believe that hiding information can prevent hackers from hacking into your system then you are mistaken.By misleading anyone into a sense of false security is more detrimental than anything. Risk Management is the seventh principle. ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ simple to understand this principle, what is the consequence of this loss and would this loss occur again. The eight principles are preventative, detective and responsive controls. Take the steps to detect the threat, prevent it and lastly respond while the threat is occurring or after. What this means is that it will detect the threat, try to prevent the threat from happening.Complexity is The Enemy of Security is the ninth principle, this means tha t the more interfacing with programs the more difficult it becomes to protect the data. The tenth principle is that fear, uncertainty and doubt do not when trying to use scare tactics when selling products for security. No one will by products if they feel they are extremely scared. Now a days companies want to know what they are purchasing and why they should be so fearful. The eleventh principle is that people, process, and technology are all needed to adequately secure a system or facility.This means that in order for everything to work correctly we should not base all operation solely off of technology but on the people in takes to run and process the information. This process helps to ensure that everything runs smoothly. The last principle is Open disclosures of Vulnerabilities is Good for Security, which means that by letting everyone know what can be hacked into can let the companies know what measures need to be taken to ensure that it does not happen again. If it were clos ed off to the world then problems that arise would never be fixed or maintained.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Correct Answer: Choice A is, harmonizing to wikpedia, symptoms are subjective ailments of the patient such as concern, giddiness, or hurting, normally non subjective to verification by the tester, doctor, tooth doctor, or other healthcare professional. Answer choices B to D are marks. Referemce: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptom 2. Which of the followers is the most of import during an initial patient rating? Critical SignsEstablishing RapportSexual History Chief Ailment Correct Answer: pick B, during an initial patient interaction with a clinician it is imperative to set up respectable resonance that will let the patient to supply inside informations about their medical history that ca n't establish in graphs or scrutinies. Choices A C and D will ne'er happen without the trust of the doctor.Reference: Eval/Risk Assessment Dr. G. Davis An otherwise healthy patient who smokes half a battalion of coffin nails a twenty-four hours has which ASA categorization? ASA IASAIIASA III ASA IV Correct Answer: Choice B, ASA II is a patient with a mild systemic disease. For case: tobacco users, minimum imbibing, pregnant, fleshiness, good controlled high blood pressure, and minor lung disease. ASA I are healthy non-smokers or minimum drinkers. ASA III are patients with terrible systemic disease non disabling ; for illustration, diabetes, ill controlled high blood pressure, and distant history of myocardial infarction. ASA IV are patient with terrible systemic disease that is a changeless menace to life. Mention: American Society of Anesthesiology. hypertext transfer protocol: //learnanesthesia.blogspot.com/p/blog-page.html After sing your patient Ã¢â¬Ës bird's-eye radiogram, you discover and diagnose the presence of calcified atheromas in her carotid arterias. What measure should you take following? Continue with dental intervention because there is no demand to be concernedMention the patient to her primary attention doctorAgenda to hold the atheromas removed by an unwritten sawbones Ignore the find because it is beyond your range of preparation Correct Answer: Choice B, if a clinician notices oppositive findings that could be endangering to the patient Ã¢â¬Ës life they are to instantly mention the patient to their primary attention doctor. Choices A, C and D could take to a unfavourable result for either the clinician or patient. Mention: Evaluation & A ; Risk Assessment slide 14 Dr. Davis In which of the undermentioned classs should a patient Ã¢â¬Ës main ailment be written?SubjectiveAim Appraisal Planned Correct Answer: Choice A, the subjective part of a SOAP note explains the patient Ã¢â¬Ës main ailment. Objective part of a SOAP note is for critical marks, medicine, and other marks observed by the clinician. Assessment is for the clinician diagnosing. Plan is for intervention done during the assignment and any future intervention scheduled. Mention: Evaluation & A ; Risk Assessment slide 18 Dr. G Davis Which of the undermentioned conditions do NOT necessitate antibiotic prophylaxis? Artificial bosom valvesMitral Valve StenosisCongenital bosom defects Hip replacing six months ago Correct Answer: B, Mitral valve stricture. Cardiovascular conditions associated with the highest hazard of inauspicious result from endocarditis for which prophylaxis with dental processs is recommended harmonizing to the American Heart Association. Prosthetic Cardiac Valve, # 2 Previous Infective Endocarditis # 3 Congenital Heart Disease, Cardiac Transplantation, Dental Management of the Medically compromised patient, page 28, BOX 2-1. Mitral valve Stenosis is NOT one of these Conditionss Which of the undermentioned agents is used to pull off a patient with an overdose of Coumadin? NaloxoneAqua MephytonDisulfiram Naltrexone Correct Answer: Choice B is used to handle Coumadin overdose. Choice A is wrong because is used to change by reversal the effects of respiratory depression overdose. Choice C is used for intoxicant overdose and pick D, Naltrexone has similar consequence to Narcan, in that is It is used for handling chronic alcohol addiction and for rapid opioid detoxification. Lippincott Ã¢â¬Ës Illustrated Reviews ; Pharmacology 3rd edition. Which of the undermentioned represents an ideal thrombocyte counts? 50,000 100,000300,000500,000 Correct Answer: Choice C, normal thrombocyte counts is 150,000- 400,000. Mention: chmaier AH. Laboratory rating of styptic and thrombotic upsets. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Shattil SJ, et Al, explosive detection systems. Hoffman Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th erectile dysfunction. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier ; 2008: fellow 122. What is the INR of a normal healthy patient? 012 3 4 Mention: Dr. Davis said this in a talk. Which of the undermentioned drugs will ensue in respiratory depression during an overdose? BenzodiazepinesBarbituratesNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Albuterol Correct Answer: Choice B, Barbiturates suppress the hypoxic and chemoreceptor response to CO2 and overdose is followed by respiratory depression and decease. Mention: A Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI ( 1988 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Acute barbiturate disposal increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo Ã¢â¬ .Psychopharmacology ( Berl. ) A 96A ( 3 ) : 385-90. What is another name for rapid external respiration?TachypneaDiaphoretic Tachycardia Ptyalism Correct Answer: Choice A, harmonizing to wikipedia, from the Greek dictionary tachy means rapid and pena agencies take a breathing. The wrong picks, sudorific: inordinate perspiration. Tachycardia: Increase Heart Rate, ptyalism: extra spit. Mention: Wikipedia subscribers. Ã¢â¬Å" Diaphoresis. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 Jan. 2013. Web. 7 Feb. 2013. Which of the undermentioned represents a symptom of active TB infection?Night SweatsXerostomia Malena Atelectasis Correct Answer: Choice A, stated in category text book: Dental Management of the Medically Compromised Patient, page 117. Choice B, Xerostomia is common among autoimmune, such as Sjorgen. Choice C, refers the show of fecal matters due to GI shed blooding. Atelectasis is the prostration of the lungs due to hapless wetting agent or squamous cell carcinoma. Refrence: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melena hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atelectasis # Causes and hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerostomia Which of the followers has a normal scope which last between eleven and sixteen seconds?Prothrombin TimePartial Thromboplastin Time Bleeding Time All above Correct Answers: Choice A, the normal PT clip is 11-15. Choice B, PTT clip is 20-35 seconds and hemorrhage clip if from 2-7 proceedingss. Which of the undermentioned conditions are you 3 % likely to contract by a needle stick? Hepatitis DHepatitis CHepatitis B Hiv Correct Answers: Choice B Hepatitis C is contracted # % by needle sticks. The wrong replies of hepatitis B and HIV per centums are 30 % and.3 % severally. Mention: As stated in category: Class Discussion, Dr. Davis. Which of the following values represent a normal healthy scope for HbA1c?4 %6.5 % 7 % 10 % Correct Answer: Choice A, a normal HbA1c 4 % -5.9 % . Mention: Wikipedia subscribers. Ã¢â¬Å" Glycated haemoglobin. Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 29 Jan. 2013. Web. 7 Feb. 2013. Which of the undermentioned conditions will NOT take to nephritic failure? Systemic lupus erythematosusBrown Ã¢â¬Ës Tumor of hyperparathyroidismGlomerulonephritis High blood pressure Correct Answer: Choice B, Brown Ã¢â¬Ës Tumor is a status associated with nephritic failure, nevertheless it does non take to it. Mention: Dental Management of the Medically Compromise Patient, page 181 What is the term to a transplant from an indistinguishable twin? Autograft HomograftIsograftHeterograft Correct Answer Choice C ; isograft is a transplant of tissue between two persons who are genetically indistinguishable. An autoplasty is the organ transplant of variety meats, tissues or even proteins from one portion of the organic structure to another in the same person. A allograft is the organ transplant of cells, tissues, or variety meats, to a receiver from a genetically non-identical giver of the same species. A heterograft is the organ transplant of life cells, tissues or variety meats from one species to another. Mention: Wikipedia. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isograft Which of the undermentioned represent a common side consequence of the drug Rifadin? Addictive belongingssRed pissDecrease Oxygen impregnation Blurred vision Correct Answer: Choice B is right. Rifampin is an intensely ruddy solid, and the little fraction which reaches organic structure fluids is known for leaving a harmless red-orange colour to the piss ( and to a lesser extent, besides perspiration and cryings ) of users, for a few hours after a dosage. Mention: Wikipedia. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rifampin Which of the undermentioned statements should a clinician support in head when utilizing a pulsation oximeter? The usage of pulse oximeters exposes patients to extra radiation Pulse oximeters should non be used on dialysis patientsPulse oximeter reading have a delayed feedbackNever topographic point a pulse oximeter on the patient Ã¢â¬Ës index finger Correct reply: C, The pulsation oximeter reading has a delayed feedback due to the signal averaging. There is a hold after a the existent O impregnation starts to drop. Choices A and B are non true. Choice D is the non replying the inquiry but is true statement. Mention: Downs JB, Schweiger JW, Miguel RV, Smith RA. Supplemental O impairs sensing of hypoventilation by pulse oximetry. Chest 2004 ; 126:1552-8 Scrofula is a status caused by which of the following beings?Mycobacteria TBStaphylococcus Aureus Mycoplasma Pneumonia Candida Albicas Correct reply: A, Scrofula in grownups is most frequently caused by Mycobacterium TB, which is contracted by take a breathing in air that is infected by M. TB. Choice B, S.aureus is related osteomyelitis, bacteriemia or TSS. Choice, C M. pneumonia is known to do pneumonia. Choice D, Candida Albicans is a commensal fungi apart of the normal vegetation ; nevertheless, higher colonisation exist in HIV patients. Mention: Werrett, Simon. Ã¢â¬Å" Mending the Nation Ã¢â¬Ës Wounds: Royal Ritual and Experimental Philosophy in Restoration England. Ã¢â¬Å" History of ScienceA 38 ( 2000 ) : 377-99. Which of the followers is likely to happen in patients with struma? Enlarged salivary secretory organsCervical lymphadenopathyCongenital sightlessness Premature loss of dentitions Correct Answer: B, Cervical lymphadenopathy is the most common mark that appears in patients enduring from struma ; in add-on, struma is accompanied by febrilities, weight loss and icinesss. Choice A, enlarged salivary secretory organs, occurs in Sjogrens syndrome. Choice C, Congenital sightlessness occurs in inborn German measles syndrome. Choice D, premature loss of teeth occurs normally due to trauma. Mention: Werrett, Simon. Ã¢â¬Å" Mending the Nation Ã¢â¬Ës Wounds: Royal Ritual and Experimental Philosophy in Restoration England. Ã¢â¬Å" History of ScienceA 38 ( 2000 ) : 377-99. What per centum of O is in the ambiance? 15 % 18 %21 %24 % 30 % Correct Answer: C, 21 % Cook & A ; Lauer 1968, p.500 How frequently should breaths be given when executing CPR? Equally frequently as possible After every 60 secondsAfter 30 thorax compactionsAfter 10 thorax compresssions Correct Answer: After 30 thorax compactions, when preforming CPR the pathophysiologic thought is to manually pump oxygenated blood and maintain cardiac end product to of import variety meats. When take a breathing into the victim, this is a signifier of supplying unreal respiration. Choice A is wrong because CPR consist of jumping rhythms of compactions and breaths, therefore breaths can non be given every bit frequently as possible. Choice B, After every 60 seconds, is wrong, In a CPR 60 2nd interval a first respondent should hold given 100 compactions. Choice D of 10 compactions is the incorrect figure. Mentions: Ã¢â¬Å" Highlights of the 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for CPR and ECC Ã¢â¬ ( pdf ) .A American Heart Association. How should patient holding a laryngospasm be managed? Epinephrine admistrationProvide positive air force per unit areaSupply an inhalator Stand clear until the individual settles down Correct Answer: B, The direction of a laryngospasm consists of supplying positive air force per unit area ( PAP ) . Laryngospasms are a prolong musculus contraction of the laryngeal cords, because the episode typically last less than 60 seconds, a PAP airing is usefully in similar ague respiratory failure. Choice A of adrenaline is merely used during laryngospasm due to vocal cord hydrops. Choice C, provides an inhalator, is wrong because most inhalators block the beta-2 receptor and therefore take to bronchoconstriction. Choice D, stand clear until the individual settles down is ne'er the right pick. Mention: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/83/5/1110.full.pdf What measurings are captured when utilizing a sphygmomanometer? Respiratory volume Temperature Oxygen ImpregnationBlood PressureCorrect Answer: D, Sphygmomanometer is used to mensurate blood force per unit area. The turnup is placed on the upper arm at the same tallness as the bosom. Cuff sizes are besides of import, excessively little a cuff consequences in high force per unit area & A ; excessively big a turnup consequences in excessively low a force per unit area. Respiratory volumes are measured spirometer, Temperature is measured utilizing a thermometer and O impregnation is measured utilizing a pulse oximeter. Mention: A Misrin, J.A Ã¢â¬ Aneroid Sphygmomanometer: A Battle for Safer Blood Pressure Apparatus Ã¢â¬ . Retrieved 27 February 2012. Which of the undermentioned blood force per unit area reading represents the ideal definition of a individual with phase one high blood pressure?142/96mmHg125/94mmHg 165/91mmHg 119/79mmHg Correct Answer: A, 142/96 mmHg harmonizing to the webmd.com, phase one high blood pressure is classified by a systole reading that lies between 140-159 and a diastole reading of 90-99. Choice B, 125/94mmHg is a reading that is classified as pre-hypertension. Choice C, 165/91mmHg is classified is stage 2 high blood pressure and Choice D. 119/79 is normal. Which of the undermentioned represents the lowest reading of a patient at hazard for cardiovascular disease? 120/80mmHg 117/76mmHg115/75mmHg125/85mmHg Correct Answer: Harmonizing to the Mayo Clinic and Dental Management of the Medically Compromise Patient, chapter 27. Which of the followers is NOT a symptom of high blood pressure? DizzinessNauseaConcern Tinnitus Correct Answer: Nausea, is the lone symptom among the list that is non experience by patients with high blood pressure harmonizing to hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-blood-pressure/DS00100 and Dental Management of the Medically Compromise Patient, page 40. Which of the followers may ensue of two carpules of 2 % lidocaine 1:100,000 adrenaline were accidently injected via IV to a patient taking propranolol? Elevated blood force per unit area and tachycardiaElevated blood force per unit area and compensatory bradycardiaDecreased blood and tachycardia Decreased blood and compensatory bradycardia Correct Answer: Choice B, elevated blood force per unit area and compensatory bradycardia would happen and take to cardiovascular prostration & A ; cardiac apprehension. Choice C & A ; D are the opposite effects that would happen. Choice A is wrong because the compensatory reaction of tachycardia is wrong. What is the approximative per centum of the United States citizens with high blood force per unit area? 15 % 25 %33 %40 % 50 % Correct Answer: Choice C, 33 % is the right reply harmonizing the CDC.com Where is lidocaine metabolized?KidneyBone Lungs Blood watercourse Correct Answer: Choice A, stated by Dr. Davis in category During which of the undermentioned alveolar consonant processs is it recommended to supply antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with non-valvular cardiovascular devices? Multiple extractionsIncision and drainageEveryday dentition cleansing While mensurating examining deepnesss Correct Answer: Choice B, Harmonizing to Dental Management of the Medically Compromise Patient, page 34. Choice A, C & A ; D where non recommended. Patients who have received a nephritic graft are likely to hold gingival hyperplasia due to which of the followers?CyclosporineDiphenylhydantoin Amlodipine Diphenylhydantoin Correct Answer: Choice A, cyclosporine is given to patients with nephritic grafts and they may exhibit gingival enlargement page 197 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients. Choice B, Phenytoin is wrong because it is a drug known to predispose patients to gingival hyperplasia but it is non prescribed to patients with nephritic graft ; it is an antiepileptic drug, besides used for dialysis remotion page 198. Choice C, Amlodipine is wrong because it is a Ca channel blocker, which unwritten visual aspect is gingival expansion. However this drug is given to patients who have high blood pressure page 43. Choice D, Dilantin is wrong because it is the same as Phenytoin for the grounds stated above page 615 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th edition under Which of the undermentioned tooth formations has NO associations with inborn poxs? Hutchinson Ã¢â¬Ës incisors Screw-Driver incisorsPeg lateralsMulberry grinders Correct Answer: Choice C, nog laterals is the right reply because it non related to inborn pox it is a job in the development of the maxillary sidelong incisors which appear smaller than normal. Choice A, Hutchinson Ã¢â¬Ës three of inborn poxs along with interstitial keratitis of the cornea causes hearing loss and dental abnormalcies such as mulberry grinder. Choice B, screw-drivers incisors is wrong reply due to the fact that they are dental defects besides seen in inborn pox and caused by direct invasion of tooth sources by Treponema beings because they can traverse the placenta. Mention: page 205 Chapter 13 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th edition. Which of the undermentioned conditions is NOT associated with HHV-4?Kaposi SarcomaInfectious glandular fever Nasopharyngeal malignant neoplastic disease Oral hairy leukoplakia Correct Answer: Choice A, . Kaposi Sarcoma is the right reply because it is associated with HIV-8 non HIV-4 pg. 207 chapter 13 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 8th edition. B. Infectious glandular fever is non the correct reply because it is caused 90 % of instances by EBV or HHV-4, a lymphotropic herpesvirus pg. 209 chapter 13 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 8th editionC. Nasopharyngeal malignant neoplastic disease is wrong because it is related to patients with HHV-4 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/viral_cancers/en/index1.html D. Oral hairy leukoplakia is wrong because it is associated with EBV after recovery pg. 215 Chapter 13 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 8th edition and pg. 297 Chapter 18 Herpes zosters is associated with which of the undermentioned herpes viruses? HHV-1 HHV-2HHV-3HHV-4 Correct Answer: Choice C, HHV-3 is the right reply because it is associated with chickenpox shingles Choice A, HHV-1 is non right because it is simplex virus that causes non-genital herpes simples in worlds, seen in kids and immature Choice B, HHV-2 is non the correct replies because it is a simplex virus besides but associated with venereal infections Choice D, HHV-4 is non right, it is besides known every bit EBV as it was described in old inquiries is a lymphorocryptovirus. Mention: pg. 604 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 8th edition ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthdictionary.info/HHV-3.htm grownups ; hypertext transfer protocols: //www.healthdictionary.info/HHV-1.htm ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthdictionary.info/HHV-4.htm and chapter 13 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th edition ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthdictionary.info/HHV-2.htm Healthcare employees are required to have a inoculation for which of the followers?HBVHCV Hiv HPV Correct Answer: Choice A, HBV is the right reply because the vaccinum against HBV is recommended to kids, health care and public safety workers with exposure to blood etc. Choice B, HCV is wrong because there is non a vaccinum for Hepatitis C merely for hepatitis A and B. Choice C, HIV is wrong because there is non a vaccinum for HIV for cut downing hazard, and cosmopolitan safeguards are to follow. Choice D, HPV incorrect because there is a vaccinum to assist forestalling some human papillomavirus but it is non required to wellness attention employees. Mentions: pg. 150 chapter 10 of Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 8th edition and it is besides recognized as effectual defence against HBV infection found in hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uptodate.com/contents/human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine-beyond-the-basics ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncdental.org/images/ncds/L % 20Kay % 20OSHA % 20Training % 20Handout.pdf What is the best manner to pull off a hapless historiographer?Consult with patient Ã¢â¬Ës doctorHave patient repetition themselves Have patient speak easy Consult with the patient Ã¢â¬Ës partner Correct Answer: Choice A, Consult with PT doctor is the right reply because it is the best manner to guarantee about the medical fortunes of the patient like the medicines. Asking for the patient Ã¢â¬Ës PCP information for future mention is portion of the medical history, which was conferred in an earlier talk Under Management Poor Historian. Choice B, have a patient repetition themselves is wrong because the patient may repeat something that he/she is diffident about is non utile. Choice C, have patient speak slowly is non the correct reply because the patient once more does n't retrieve the medical history so it would non give us any information. Choice D, consult with patient Ã¢â¬Ës partner is non the right reply ; nevertheless, this can be a right pick if the spouse is lawfully lawful to talk on behalf of the patient, but this is non ever the instance so the best manner is ever consult with patient Ã¢â¬Ës doctor this was discussed in the first talk under direction hapless h istoriographer. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th erectile dysfunctions Which type of medicines should a tooth doctor papers? Prescribed Over- the-Counter Multivitamins Herbal addendumsAll of the aboveCorrect Answer: Choice E, all of the undermentioned drugs that the patient is taking should be acknowledged and examined for actions, inauspicious side effects and contraindications. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th erectile dysfunctions Which of the undermentioned ASA categorizations represents individual who is brain-dead? ASA I ASA III ASA VASA VICorrect Answer: Choice D, ASA I is a normal healthy patient with no organic, physiological or psychiatric perturbation. ASA III are patients with terrible systemic disease. These patients have some functional restrictions but no major danger of decease. EG controlled congestive bosom failure, stable angina, old bosom onslaught, ill controlled high blood pressure, morbid fleshiness etc. ASA V is a stagnant patient who is non expected to last without the operation. This patient has at hand hazard of decease, multi-organ failure, sepsis etc. ASA VI is a patient declared encephalon dead whose variety meats are removed for giver intents. Mention: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASA_physical_status_classification_system Which of the undermentioned ASA categorizations represent a normal healthy patient?ASA IASA III ASA V ASA VI Correct Answer: Choice A, ASA I is a normal healthy patient. ASA III patients suffer from a terrible systemic disease. These patients have some functional boundaries, nevertheless no cardinal danger of decease. ASA V is a morbid patient who is non expected to last without an operation and is impending upon decease and multi-organ failure. ASA VI is a patient acknowledged as encephalon dead. Mention: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASA_physical_status_classification_system Which of the followers is an illustration of a symptom?PainJaundice Heat Heart Murmur Correct Answer: Choice A, symptoms are as any characteristic which is noticed by the patient. A mark is noticed by the doctor. Jaundice, heat and bosom mutter are marks because they are noticeable by others, such as the physician Mention: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symptom The wont of masticating beetling British pound should be documented under which class Chief ailmentSocial HistoryDental history Family history Correct Answer: Choice B, The Social history is the turn toing familial, professional, and leisure facets of the patient Ã¢â¬Ës personal life that have the possible to be clinically important. Dental history references past dental processs and jobs. Medical history is information gained by the doctor by examining the patient. History of present unwellness, household diseases and societal history inquiries are included. Family history adresses upsets from inherited from blood relations of the patient have suffered. Mentions: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betel_quid What is the approximative overall U.S. mortality rate of morbific endocarditis 10 % 20 % 30 %40 %Correct Answer: Choice D, morbific endocarditis affects more than 15000 patients yearly in the U.S. and mortality rate is 40 % . Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th erectile dysfunctions What is the most common mark of a morbific endocarditis? Osler Ã¢â¬Ës nodes Roth musca volitanssFeverClubbing of the figure Correct Answer: Choice C, fever. The most common indexs of morbific endocarditis are fever, bosom mutter, and positive blood civilization. Roth musca volitanss are found on the retina, and clubbing of the figures are marks of morbific endocarditis Osler Ã¢â¬Ës nodes are found on the fingers. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th ed page 25 Which of the followers has the higher frequence of doing bacteriemia? Rubber dike matrix with cuneus arrangement Chewing nutrient Root canal therapyToothbrushing and flossingCorrect Answer: Choice D, tooth brushing and flossing. Tooth brushing and flossing can take bacteriemia ; in add-on, there is a 68 % opportunity of undertaking bacteriemia. Choice B, masticating nutrient has up to 51 % opportunity of doing bacteriums. Choice A, the gum elastic dike and cuneus arrangement has a 32 % opportunity, and pick C, root canal therapy has up to 20 % opportunity. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th ed page 28 Which of the following have the highest life-time hazard of geting morbific endocarditis? Arthritic bosom diseaseHistory of old endocarditisPatients with mechanical valves Mitral valve prolapsed with regurgitation Correct Answer: Choice B, history of old endocarditis 740 people for every 100,000 incidence of morbific endocarditis. Choice D, mitral valve prolapsed with regurgitation 52 people for every 100,000 incidence. Choice A, Rheumatic febrility has 380-440 people for every 100,000 incidence, patients with mechanical valves 308-383/100k incidence. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th ed page 21 The extremum plasma concentration of two gms of Amoxil is reach at about two hours after unwritten disposal. How long does an acceptable MIC for 2g of Amoxil last? Two hours Four HourssSix HourssEight Hourss Correct Answer: Choice C, Six hr is how long 2g should hold and acceptable MIC for. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th ed page 32 What is the name given to a transplant that is taken from a different species? Autograft AlloplastHeterograftIsograft Correct Answer: Choice C, A Xenograft is from a different species. All of the transplants mentioned are types of grafts. Choice A, an autoplasty comes from ego. Choice B, an alloplast is from a man-made beginning. Choice D, is an isograft comes from a twin. Mention: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th ed page 36. Which of the followers is NOT caused by HPV? Heck Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Squamous Cell CarcinomaOral Hairy LeukoplakiaSquamous Papilloma Correct Answer: Choice C, Oral Hairy Leukoplakia is caused by Epstein-Barr virus and HIV. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Squamous villoma and Heck Ã¢â¬Ës Disease are all caused by an infection with HPV. Mentions: Dental Management of Medically Compromised Patients 7th erectile dysfunctions. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heck % 27s_disease, hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squamous_Cell_Carcinoma, hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squamous_papilloma