Saturday, August 31, 2019
Epistemology is one of the very important branches of philosophy. It is also known as the knowledge theory. The knowledge theory consists of three questions; Ã¢â¬Å"What is the origin of knowledge? What is the reliability of knowledge? & What is the criteria of knowledge? Ã¢â¬ Rene Descartes and John Locke really looked into epistemology and both had different theories to approach it. John Locke looked at empiricism and Rene Descartes looked at rationalism. John Locke was an English philosopher and formed his opinion around empiricism. Empiricism is an approach to doing philosophy stressing experience as the in road to all knowledge. The human being is a blank slate to him. Locke was a moderate skeptic, who doubted until valid proof was given to substantiate truth claims of a demonstrative and sensitive nature. The foundations of knowledge functioned in the following manner according to Locke. The human being takes in the external world through sensation (the five senses) and gives form to the experiential data through the processes of reflection. To Locke, intuitive knowledge is the most trustworthy because we automatically recognize the agreement or disagreement of ideas without the intervention of a Ã¢â¬Å"proofÃ¢â¬ . His criterion of knowledge depended on the force and intensity with which someone perceives either agreement or disagreement between ideas. So for example, we know that 2+3=5. We also know that 2+3 does not equal 7. Locke, unlike Descartes, argues against innate ideas. However, Locke believes that we are all born with the ability to acquire knowledge through the organization of sensate data by the cognitive capacities and capabilities we possess at birth, which are innate to the human. Descartes had a different view of epistemology. He argued for rationalism. Rationalism is an approach to philosophy that employs Ã¢â¬Å"pure reasonÃ¢â¬ to acquire instances of fundamental truth. In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes comes up with three fundamental truths by way of pure reason. The first fundamental truth is Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I exist. Ã¢â¬ This fundamental truth establishes for Descartes the Ã¢â¬Å"essenceÃ¢â¬ of the human being in his philosophy, as the Ã¢â¬Å"thing that thinks. Ã¢â¬ He is reflecting on himself as the Ã¢â¬Å"object of deceptionÃ¢â¬ and reasons that despite being deceived, as long as he can think about it, he exists. Having a clear perception of the fundamental truths can guarantee they can be trusted with absolute certainty and cannot ever be false. The three fundamental truths (self, god, & mathematics) are examples of innate knowledge, or truths that all humans are born with given to by God. Descartes says we can discover these truths through the Meditations, by way of doing philosophy, but we do not pursue these in the same manner we pursue other forms of knowledge such as science. The dream argument is aimed at the external world. It says that Ã¢â¬Å"I often have perceptions very much like the ones I have while IÃ¢â¬â¢m dreaming. There are no definite signs to distinguish dream experience from wake experience, so it is possible that I am dreaming right now and all my perceptions are false. Ã¢â¬ In my opinion, I think that John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s position on empiricism is more philosophically sound to me. Just to re-cap, empiricism is an approach to doing philosophy stressing experience as the in road to all knowledge. The human being as a blank slate really makes sense to me. We automatically know that we can agree or disagree without having to have proof to go along with it. I think that sense experience is always the starting point to knowledge. I think in order to learn something in life you have to experience it first. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t just go out and expect the knowledge to be in your brain for no reason. For example, how would you know what the color blue looks like if you were born blind? You would need to use your senses to try and understand what the color is. God couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t just put it in your mind because itÃ¢â¬â¢s something that you just need to see. Also, you can learn from the experiences you go through. If you do something and it ends up being wrong, then you learn from that experience and how you can go about it differently next time. In my opinion, rationalism has some defects that would make it harder to understand philosophically. A rationalist comes to believe that knowledge is a lot like math. So pretty much, it is knowledge that comes before experience. Something that you already know, but have never experienced before. I think that is a bit problematic because how can you know something that you never experienced? Epistemology plays a big role in philosophy as does John Locke and Rene Descartes. They both have great views on epistemology looking at rationalism and empiricism. When thinking about rationalism, we know that knowledge can be acquired through reason alone and that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t need experience. But when thinking about empiricism, we know that we learn through our experiences as a person. Justifying truth as a philosopher, I would agree more with LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s view on empiricism. I believe that everything happens for a reason, and that you need experience to learn, and to grow as a person.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Nordstrom's vs. Macy's Future Challenges Historically speaking, Canada has never been a great market for American retailers. The Canadian dollar was weak, costs were higher, and with limited real estate development, it was difficult to find space. Not anymore, now the door to Canada is opening wider than ever thanks to a stronger Canadian dollar, a relatively robust economy, and a loosening of the commercial real estate market, in part because of the downsizing of some longtime retailers like Sears Canada.For American retailers, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s allure is simple; sales per square foot at Canadian malls were almost 50 percent higher in 2011 than sales per square foot at American malls. This is a budding market that Nordstrom will need to act towards if they hope to keep up with the competition in the future. Important Decisions NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s has made many very important decisions in the past that have shaped them into the company they are today. The first and most important came i n 1901 when founder John W.Nordstrom decided to use the money he had left from the gold rush to open a shoe store in Seattle with Carl Wallin, called Wallin & Nordstrom. The next big decision came in 1966 when it was decided that the Nordstrom's shoe store in Portland would begin selling clothing as well. This marked a pivotal change in direction for NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s. After the success of the Portland store, it was decided to implement the idea in the other stores. In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s experienced a boom. This was due to many factors but one of the most prevalent was their amazing use of customer support.Over almost anyone else NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s prides itself on having some of, if not the best, customer support. This is helped by them recruiting managers from the ranks of salespeople thereby encouraging their employees to work harder while maintaining high moral. Nordstrom, along with the retail industry, sources products from around the world, and this means t hey encounter a wide range of global challenges. Many of these challengesÃ¢â¬âsuch as forced labor and health and safety issuesÃ¢â¬âare cause for very real concern for all retailers. To address these concerns, Nordstrom created the Nordstrom Social Responsibility team in 1994.This team works closely with their Nordstrom Product Group (NPG) manufacturers and vendors to ensure that Nordstrom-label products are made in accordance with all applicable laws and ethical labor practices. Past Challenges Single-digit growth became the norm for Nordstrom throughout the early and mid-1990s. Sales grew sluggish thanks in large part to fluctuations in demand for women's apparel and the severe recession in southern California, where more than half of the company's total store square footage was located in the early years of the decade. The double-digit growth of the 1980s was gone.The sales increases of the 1990s were largely attributable to new store openings. By 2003 after several changes in management Nordstrom appeared to have regained its lost luster through cost containment, technology initiatives, and a refocusing on its niche: luxury goods at affordable prices. Some analysts considered technology to be the key component, particularly a new state-of-the-art merchandising system, which began to be rolled out in 2002. The system could track sales minute by minute throughout its stores, enabling Nordstrom to reduce markdowns and better target its offerings to customers.On the merchandise side, the retailer began introducing edgier fashion offerings in a department called Ã¢â¬Å"via C,Ã¢â¬ in an attempt to leverage its core customer base, which was younger and had a wider age range than its main competitors, Neiman-Marcus Co. and Saks Incorporated. Nordstrom enjoyed its most profitable year ever in 2003. NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s continued reliance on aggressive sales tactics came around to bite them in late 1980s. The employees' union (which was later decertified) com plained about the pressure on employees to sell.In late 1989 a group of unionized employees charged that they were not being paid for performing extra services to customers. In February 1990, after a three-month investigation, the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries alleged that the company had systematically violated state laws by failing to pay employees for a variety of duties, such as delivering merchandise and doing inventory work. The agency ordered Nordstrom to change its compensation and record-keeping procedures, and to pay back wages to some of Nordstrom's 30,000 employees.Soon after, the firm created a $15 million reserve to pay back-wage claims. The company, however, remained a target of class-action lawsuits on these matters, which were finally settled out of court in early 1993 when Nordstrom agreed to pay a set percentage of compensation to employees who worked at Nordstrom from 1987 to 1990. The settlement cost the company between $20 million and $30 mi llion. Specific Competitive Advantages One specific competitive advantage Macy's holds over Nordstrom's is its target demographic.While Nordstrom's focuses mainly on career moms between the ages of 35 and 50, Macy's recently launched Ã¢â¬Å"Millennial strategyÃ¢â¬ states that its merchandise areas primarily serve ages 19-30. The millennial generation (ages 13-30) is now America's largest and most diverse generation, spending an estimated $65 billion each year for the type of merchandise sold at Macy's. A much larger demographic gives Macy's a competitive advantage. On the other hand, Nordstrom's has a distinct advantage over Macy's when it comes to customer loyalty and social-oriented traffic.Macy's and Nordstrom's have been largely based in malls for decades, but recently, malls have become less popular in the United States. As a result, both companies have been forced to open free-standing stores in scattered locations in a community. Since Nordstrom's has a slightly older demo graphic with more buying power and need for social status through brands, loyal customers of Nordstrom's will be more willing to travel to shop there. Macy's, who targets a younger demographic, has less loyal customers with buying power and relies more on impulse buyers and young mall-goers looking to spend a little extra money.Comparative Statistics In 2011, Macy's boasted $26. 4 billion in net sales. That figure has grown steadily since the economic crash of 2008. Nordstrom's showed $10. 8 billion in net sales in the same year. Again, this figure has grown steadily since the economic downturn. Macy's has a whopping 171,000 employees. Nordstrom's has only 52,430 employees as of 2011. With Macy's being a much larger chain, this difference is to be expected. Macy's operates 400 stores in 33 states as of the year ended 2012. Currently, Nordstrom's operates 109 stores in 28 states.In May of 2007, Macy's reached its pinnacle of prosperity in terms of market shares value and profitabilit y. Its common stock price was valued at 45. 05 and business was looking up. Surprisingly, by October of the next year, the stock price had plummeted as low as 7. 42 as the company struggled to stay afloat and fight through the crippling recession. Today, the stock has recovered to 41. 71, and is predicted to continue its growth. Nordstrom's, however, has shown more resilience through the recession. While it still fell from 55. 1 to 11. 37 in 2008, it has shot up to rates above its previous record. With the stock price as high as 57. 2 in the past year, Nordstrom shows a stronger trend of increase than Macy's. Summary We recommend investing in Nordstrom over MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s. With NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s forecasted growth and success in Canadian markets, we expect Nordstrom to grow consistently for years to come. While MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s size and net income are attractive, we feel that Nordstrom has a better management structure and potential for growth in coming years.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å" Constitution of Rural Health Centres in distant small towns of Developing States to supply basic wellness installations every bit good as wellness instruction to adult females for baby health care Ã¢â¬ Introduction A bulk of population depends to a great extent upon authorities plans to run into its wellness attention demands. Poor wellness attention indexs such as maternal and infant mortality demonstrate that these demands are non frequently met. Preventable and catching diseases are the major causes of high mortality rates and lend to a great extent to the load of unwellness in developing states like Pakistan. The load of hapless wellness falls disproportionately upon adult females and kids. Infant mortality is high. A high per centum of kids experience multiple episodes of diseases and their nutrition degrees are unequal. Womans of childbearing age face high incidences of anaemia. Poor nutrition degrees and ill planned gestations exacerbate the wellness conditions of destitute adult females. Additionally, wellness attention is most frequently unavailable for these sections of the population. In the early 1990s, the orientation of the state Ã¢â¬Ës medical system, including medical instruction, favored the elite. There has been a pronounced roar in private clinics and infirmaries since the late eightiess and a corresponding, unfortunate impairment in services provided by nationalized infirmaries. In 1992 there was merely one doctor for every 2,127 individuals, one nurse for every 6,626 individuals, and merely one infirmary for every 131,274 individuals. In 1992 some 35 million Pakistanis, or about 30 per centum of the population, were unable to afford nutritionally equal nutrient or to afford any nonfood points at all. Of these, 24.3 million lived in rural countries, where they constituted 29 per centum of the population. Urban countries, with tierce of the national population, had a poorness rate of 26 per centum. The Ministry of Population Welfare has been chiefly responsible for household planning services since the 60 Ã¢â¬Ës. However, the Ministry of Health with its larger service bringing web has a greater portion of duty of supplying generative wellness services. In peculiar, the National Programmed for FP and PHC represents the largest graduated table intercession for the bringing of FP and RH services in the signifier of the Lady Health Workers ( LHW ) now integrated with the Village based household be aftering workers. Another index of increasing integrating of generative wellness services is the jointly formulated National Reproductive Health Services Package, which clearly defines the precedence countries for intercession and preparation. 2.0 Literature Review HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN National Public Health and Social Welfare is a recent invention in Pakistan. In pre-partition India the British provided wellness attention for Government workers and established several major infirmaries, but did little for the staying population. Limited resources and trouble in organizing national and provincial duty for wellness attention have hampered betterments since this clip. National Health planning began in the 1960 Ã¢â¬Ës and the Government embarked on a major wellness enterprise with significant donor aid from the World Bank. This programmed is aiming maternal wellness, control of epidemics, preparation of female paramedics and bettering the direction of Provincial Health Depts. There was a pronounced addition in the Numberss of private infirmaries and clinics in the 1980 Ã¢â¬Ës with a corresponding diminution in service provided by the nationalized services. For case in 1992 there was one doctor per 2,127 people, one infirmary per 131,274 people and between 1985 and 1991, 12.9 million people had no entree to wellness attention. Mortality rates remain high, peculiarly for the under 5 Ã¢â¬Ës. The following are the basic wellness service bringing systems in Pakistan: Primary Health Care Facilities Primary Health Care installations include dispensaries, Maternal and Child Health Centres ( MCHC ) , Family Welfare Centres ( FWC ) , Basic Health Units ( BHUs ) and Rural Health Centres ( RHCs ) . Each Union Council, which has a population scope from ten to twenty five thousand people, is, in rule, promised at least one primary wellness attention installation. A brief description of these mercantile establishments is given below: Dispensaries are managed by male paramedics or physicians and offer minor remedy services. MCHCs are managed by female paramedics ( Lady Health Visitors Ã¢â¬â LHVs ) .They provide basic prenatal attention, natal, post-natal and household planning services, and intervention of minor complaints to adult females. Family Welfare Centres ( FWC ) are the service bringing Centres of the Population Welfare Program operated by paramedics and community development workers. There are two types of FWCs: The inactive units cater to the Reproductive Health demands of a population of 5-7 thousand people and the nomadic units supply services to 15-20 thousand people. Situated in urban slums and rural backwoods countries, they are designed to supply services to the whole household, peculiarly in the country of generative wellness. For widening outreach, they seek community support and engagement. Basic Health Units ( BHUs ) provide wellness attention services to a population of up to 10 1000 and are typically staffed by a male general responsibility physician, an LHV and a dispenser. They offer first degree remedy attention, MCH attention, household planning and preventative services to the population of the country. Rural Health Centres ( RHCs ) provide extended outpatient services and some inmate services, normally limited to short-run observation and intervention of patients who do non necessitate transportation to a higher-level installation. They serve a population of about 25 Ã¢â¬â 50 thousand people, with a staff of about 30 including 3 to 4 physicians and a figure of paramedics. They typically have 10-20 beds with X-ray, research lab and minor surgery installations. These services do non include bringing and exigency obstetric services. Secondary Health Care Facilities These include Tehsil and District central office infirmaries. Tehsil Headquarters offer basic inmate services every bit good as outpatient services. They serve a population of about 100 Ã¢â¬â 300 thousand people. They typically have 40-80 beds and appropriate support services including X-ray, research lab and surgery installations. Specialists such as accoucheurs and gynaecologists, general sawboness and baby doctors are included in the staff District Headquarters Hospitals serve a population of approximately 1 to 2 million people and supply a scope of specializer attention in add-on to basic infirmary and outpatient services. They typically have about 100-125 beds. Secondary degree of attention is the most critical nexus between basic and specialised wellness attention services. Unfortunately, this degree excessively, like primary wellness attention, has been uneffective in run intoing its marks in service bringing due to improper fiscal allotments, direction insufficiencies, embezzlement of work force and diagnostic installations and unequal exigency services. The utilization rates of these installations, hence, have been less than optimal. Tertiary Health Care Facilities Tertiary attention services are provided chiefly through learning infirmaries in major metropoliss. The installations offered at these infirmaries include exigency attention ; outpatient and inmate attention for a assortment of fortes and sub-specialties along with extended diagnostic installations. A major part of wellness allotments are consumed by third attention installations adding to the grudges of the primary and secondary attention installations. Health PROGRAMS RELATED TO WOMEN AND INFANT CARE The wellness plan giving particular focal point to major public wellness jobs of the state are discussed as follows: National Program for Family Planning & A ; Primary Health Care The chief push of the plan is to widen the primary wellness attention and household planning services to the communities through trained lady wellness workers ( LHWs ) all over the state. At present, the Program is covering 50 % population, chiefly in the rural and urban slum country. The plan envisages that by the twelvemonth 2003, 100,000 LHWs in the field of household planning and wellness attention services will be trained and with such a strength of LHWs, 70 % of the population will be covered. There is 9100 trained wellness installation staff and 1300 LHWs who are involved in the preparation and supervising of the LHWs. Selection of another batch of 1000 supervisors is completed and their preparation in afoot. During the surpassing financial twelvemonth, Rs.1200 million has been allocated for the execution of the plan with extra allotment of Rs.983 million has besides been allocated during the current twelvemonth ( 2001-2002 ) . 3.0 Statement of Problem Ã¢â¬Å" Constitution of Rural Health Centres in distant small towns of Developing States to supply basic wellness installations every bit good as wellness instruction to adult females for baby health care Ã¢â¬ 4.0 Research Design The undermentioned subdivision lay down the way that led to the formation of research design and justification of the methodological analysis selected to accomplish the above stated aims. 4.1 Research Paradigm The method that was adopted to make research was the aggregation of informations through secondary beginnings. This method is used because it was non easy to roll up primary informations for this subject and quality secondary information was available from assorted beginnings Interviews were besides conducted with wellness attention practicians to hold more in-depth position of the job being addressed. 4.1.1 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Primary information was collected through Interview Questionnaire development A pre-interview questionnaire was developed. All inquiries were qualitative, and unfastened ended. Observation Fiscal Records 4.2 Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation The information will be collected from the undermentioned beginnings for qualitative research and analysis through statistical tool and graphical representation of questionnaire. Interviews from wellness attention practicians, educationalist, Secondary information was gathered through books, Internet, official publications and assorted libraries. 4.3 Aim Pakistan has a high baby and maternal mortality rate, which is a load on the system. It is one of the major jobs of our state and batch of resources are spend to minimise this job, but still the authorities is non able to command this high baby and maternal mortality rate. This is a major issue because the resources, which are being spent, which can be used for other developmental intents besides. This survey is important because it addresses this job and provides an penetration to the significance, causes, effects and declaration of this job. What basic wellness installations and instruction is being provided by these RHCs to adult females for infant health care. What jobs are predominating sing maternal and infant health care and recommendations to be given with regard to the jobs. 4.4 Verification, Validity & A ; Reliability Silverman ( 2000 ) has stressed on the fact that credibleness is indispensable for all research whether it be qualitative or quantitative in nature. The research worker will seek to show credibleness of research by supplying good quality research. Researcher will seek to put aside the preconceived thoughts about the phenomenon under consideration and showing the true contemplation of the informations obtained from the sample. Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) states the trustiness involves the undermentioned elements: cogency or credibleness, objectiveness or conformability, dependability or dependableness, and genrealizability or transferability. 4.4.1 Validity or Credibility Cogency of the information refers to the truth and preciseness of the informations ( Denscombe, 2007 ) . The research worker will seek to inquire the appropriate research inquiries from the interviewee. The sample selected from the Pakistan Telecom industry will assist the research worker to roll up the valid information which will ease in the probe of the subject under geographic expedition. 4.4.2 Dependability The research worker will see that the research instrument used in the research i.e. qualitative research to be impersonal and consistent across multiple occasions of usage. The research worker will seek to analyze the informations in such a manner that if any other research worker use the same research instrument will bring forth the same consequences. 4.5 SCOPE & A ; LIMITATIONS To roll up first manus cognition for this thesis, rural countries all developing states particularly from Pakistan had to be visited which required batch of fiscal resources. This meant disbursement immense sum of financess to roll up primary informations through study, which might be possible for big organisations like authorities or NGO Ã¢â¬Ës etc. , but when sing an person it is non possible. Datas were conductuted through observations and past records were due to their easy handiness. Bibliography hypertext transfer protocol: //webapps01.un.org/nvp/frontend! policy.action? id=502 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.prcs.org.pk/health.asp hypertext transfer protocol: //www.womenofchina.cn/Policies_Laws/Policies/17088.jsp hypertext transfer protocol: //www.muhammadyunus.org/Social-Business/grameen-healthcare/ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC383386/ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pide.org.pk/Mimap/Report06.pdf hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dawn.com/2003/01/31/letted.htm hypertext transfer protocol: //www1.infopak.gov.pk/public/govt/ministry_population_welfare.htm hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mopw.gov.pk hypertext transfer protocol: //www.phaef.org/HEinPak.htm hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pap.org.pk/Edu.htm
Literature revie of success factors of ecommerce in fashion - Article Example IMRG, the leading industry body for global e-Retailing has been keeping an eye on e-business figures for quite some time now. For instance year 2000 figures from IMRG indicate that online revenues for fashion goods grew at 30 percent, while in 2005 an estimated 24 million people spent over 1.6 billion online in 2005. According to e-bay, the pioneering e-retailing site on the net, a piece of clothing sells every 7seconds on their site (Morrell, 2006) and TopshopÃ¢â¬â¢s website is believed to be its second largest outlet after its oxford street flag shop store (Dudley, 2005). This goes on to show that e-retailing for fashion products is becoming a Ã¢â¬Ëfashion trendÃ¢â¬â¢ now, having been identified as the fastest growing online sector in the UK presenting 9 per cent of all online British retailing (Ashworth et al). In 2004, retail fashion market in the UK amounted to 37 billion in (Mintel) whereas the total value for the book retail market in the same year was a mere 3.62billion (Mintel). This is indeed quite an encouraging sign for the fashion industry. Internet also allows live conferencing and academic exchange amongst the designers and fashion retailer. Such interactive session also help in breeding interest amongst more buyers and sellers. Issues now being discussed include relating to consumer behaviour, enhancing the displays, academic exchanges. Such discussion help in persuading the average consumer to go for online clothing purchase (Kim) and examinations of cross channel shopping behaviour involving fashion purchases via the catalogue and online (Lu). Some such work is also focused upon the components of fashion web consumer perceptions of these (Kim). Virtual e-tailers: These are the virtual fashion apparel stores on the net, offering a range of cloths and fashion accessories to the consumer. In fact, on account of the growing popularity, these
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Musical Compositions - Essay Example This is what will be dissertated in the following. Eric Serra, who composed The Diva Dance, which was used in the movie The Fifth Element as much of the film's overall score, and it shows a significant influence of Middle Eastern music, particularly Ra. The Diva Dance opera performance featured music from Gaetano Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor Part Two, Act Two, N. 14 Scena ed aria, 'O giusto cielo!' "and was voiced by Inva Mula-Tchako, while the role of Plavalaguna is humanoid alien, her vocalizations seem beyond physical possibility; however, in a documentary feature on the Special Edition DVD release, it is stated that Mula-Tchako's voice was not digitally altered. Canadian vocalist Marie-ve Munger performed the complete Diva Dance before a live audience, and her performance was later aired on Quebec television as part of a promotion for a televised boxing event" (Wikipedia, 2007). One of the most major and significant similarities between the two musical compositions is that of their background and influences; they both have a very noticeable opera tone to them, which makes sense as since the 1980s operatic excerpts have been employed increasingly and prominently in blockbuster films, and "in some films, opera excerpts are used as signifiers of the properties commonly associated with opera - love, exoticism, high
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Influences of communism in Amerian culture - Essay Example But the question is whether these two authors were committed to uphold communist ideals. Also in a round-about way, the question can be asked whether they were aware of MarxistÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on their works, or they continued writing the texts to uphold life as it is, while being indifferent to communist ideals. Since commitment to a particular political ideology is the violation of an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to the artistic portrayal of life as it is, the presence of communist themes in SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ and OdetsÃ¢â¬â¢ appears to be a simple coincidence. Therefore it does not necessarily mean that these pieces of literature would not have been possible without the work of Marx, Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ , but communist zeal happens to construct the major themes of the texts. Reflections of Communist Ideals: Coincidence or Commitment? Indeed Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting for LeftyÃ¢â¬ are the fictional forms of MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ . ... Throughout the whole novel, Tom develops from an exploited and passive migrant proletarian to an active communist whose finalized decision is to Ã¢â¬Å"point out and bring to the front the common interests of the entire proletariatÃ¢â¬ (Marx and Engels 68). According to Ã¢â¬Å"the Communist ManifestoÃ¢â¬ , this goal is one of the two criteria that distinguish a communist from other proletarians. Transformation from Oppressed Proletariat to an Ideal Communist With the progress of the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Grapes of WrathÃ¢â¬ , the readers are provided with the scopes of being prepared to embrace the central characterÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation towards communist ideals. In the beginning of the novel, the readers simply become introduced with miseries and distresses of a working class family that migrates from Oklahoma to California with a hope for better living. The readers experience the struggles of a proletariatÃ¢â¬â¢s world through Joads family and Tom is still an outsider in the world of communism. Meanwhile the emotional plot for allowing the readers to experience the growth of the working class parties is prepared. Also at the same time, the readers experience the conflicts between the workers and the labor-exploiter Bourgeois class. At this point the workers -to some extent, the readers also- feel helpless and desperately the need of being organized in the face of mightier Bourgeoisies. Thus at the death of Jim Casey, Tom fills up his position as a self-committed communist. Unlike SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to uphold the individual transformation towards communism, Odets shows collective or class transformation. Through flat and simplistic characterizations he tries to say where there is class-oppression and class-exploitation in a
Monday, August 26, 2019
NYPD CIA Anti-Terror Operations - Assignment Example For example, were an inmate to be pardoned from his jail sentenceÃ¢â¬âbut was not, in turn, released as stated within the executive orderÃ¢â¬âthis would be one possible example of a violation of the executive order. If the directive in the executive order is not carried outÃ¢â¬âwhether by omission or commissionÃ¢â¬âthat is also punitively considered as a direct violation of the executive order. In all seriousness, why this is important to grasp is because many individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ futures lie in the hands of the President, because signing executive orders is an at-will type of activity for the President; the President need not sign them, but the President does so out of volition to support a cause, help an individual, or protect various types of liberties which might be otherwise infringed upon unless signed. III. Why NYPD CIA Anti-Terror Operations DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t Constitute a Violation of the Executive Order #12333 The New York Police Department did not violate Executive O rder #12333 by conducting anti-terror operations. Of course, since the September 11th, 2011 attacks on the World Trade Center in NYC, of course the city became much more serious about ensuring that due diligence was given to being more security-conscious not very long afterwards. In part one of Executive Order #12333, the goal of the executive order states that Ã¢â¬Å"[t]he United States intelligence effort shall provideÃ¢â¬ ¦necessary information on which to base decisions concerning the conduct and development of foreign, defense and economic policy, and the protection of United States national interests from foreign security threats. All departments and agencies shall cooperate fully to fulfill this goal.Ã¢â¬ 2 Since the NYPD and the CIA are both organizations that cooperate with the government, itÃ¢â¬â¢s quite reasonable to presume that both are types of intelligence agenciesÃ¢â¬âthe NYPD, in its own rightÃ¢â¬âresponsible for guarding the United States against any typ e of terrorism threats of any kind. Also, information is free to be shared between and amongst any departments or organizations that would further the knowledge base about any impending or potential threats. Executive Order #12333 states that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦all agencies and departments should seek to ensure full and free exchange of information in order to derive maximum benefit from the United States intelligence effort.Ã¢â¬ 3 This means that oversight should be clear, without any secrets kept unless they are of importance to national security. This is why the NYPD working with the CIA in anti-terror efforts are completely valid methods of having ensured the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s security. IV. Future Recommendations to Avoid Violating Executive Orders The HuffPost New YorkÃ¢â¬âa division of The Huffington Post Internet news blogÃ¢â¬âstated that people from certain ethnic neighborhoods were followed on purpose in order to see if their activities were legitimate. Pakistani cab drive rs were pulled over for the slightest infractions, such as red lights, and various mosques and other organizations were infiltrated as well. Some
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Legal Environment and Business Decisions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Legal Environment and Business Decisions - Essay Example The Law of tort is used to punish people mishandling their rights carelessly or deliberately. The 14th century French word Ã¢â¬Å"TortumÃ¢â¬ translating to Ã¢â¬ËtwistedÃ¢â¬â¢ is the base of the legal word Ã¢â¬Å"tortÃ¢â¬ (Smellie, 2002). Negligence is an unintentional irresponsible act considered as a breach of legal duty which any rational person would not do under normal circumstance. Any breach of duty which harmed the victim due to defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s fault can fetch the victim proper compensation for the injury or damage caused, under the negligence of tort law (Winfield, 2006). According to the Law of Tort, the prima facie case requirements for the victim to file a case are as follows 1. As strong evidence for breach in duty of care 2. Proof that the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s damage is caused in connection to the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s negligence 3. Proof that the foreseeable nature of the harm or damage was ignored by the defendant due to their negligence (Cooke, 2005). Analysis There are five important elements of consideration in this case. (1) Did the defendant Michael owe Anna duty of care? (2) If so, how did Michael breach his duty of care? (3) What damages have Anna suffered due to his Negligence? (4) Room for contributory negligence and voluntary assumption of risk in the case (5) Sort of compensation Anna is seeking and the chances for reduction Anna will be compensated only if the first three elements are proved to the satisfaction of the court. Tort law will provide the required remedy as compensation to the plaintiff based on the next two elements. The compensation may be of any form ranging from injunction to monetary rewards (Harowood, 2003, p.5). Duty of Care A person shall be subjected to trial if they fail to fulfill their Ã¢â¬Å"Duty of careÃ¢â¬ . Donoghue v Stevenson case, states Michael was supposed to help Anna according to the Ã¢â¬Å"Neighbor principleÃ¢â¬ in a vulnerable situation. Michael did so, but was not able to fulfill his Ã¢â¬Å"Duty of CareÃ¢â¬ completely as he did not foresee an accident. Breach in Duty of Care Michael was drunk and had difficulty in driving when Anna approached him for lift. He offered to help Anna considering her risky situation. But did not take enough care to drive safely. The defendant did and did not offer reasonable care in this case. Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable care when dealing with othersÃ¢â¬ is the most emphasized point in duty of care. Each case has a different level of reasonable care in accordance with the people and the situation dealt. The tort law determines what is reasonable care based on the explicit situation defined in each case (Atiyah, 1972). AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s Damages Anna suffered severe physical injuries along with Michael when the vehicle slipped off. She suffered monetary losses due to absence from work. The physical pain and monetary loss caused her great mental agony leaving her in a state of depression. Can Michael be held responsible for AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s loses? According to Anna, Michael was committing a legally wrong act by driving drunk. His decision to take Anna along with him when he himself had difficulty driving safely was a breach in duty of care. Contributory Negligence Anna noticed Michael smelled strongly of alcohol before parching on his vehicle. Since it was raining, late night and the plaintiff did not see any other means of transport
Saturday, August 24, 2019
How Intersectional Identities Must Shape an Asian American Agenda for Social Change - Assignment Example This paper illustrates that a census of our own presents a masterpiece that resulted from a 2010 Queers Southeast Asian survey. This sample had 364 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) Asian Americans from the entire United States. Intersectionality connects to the diversity of Asian American people through the difficulties in communication. Often when in public places, the Asian American people fear to talk because they will be oppressed due to their inadequate knowledge of the native English language. Therefore, to emphasize on discrimination based on the diversity of the Asian American culture, many people from this race miss various educational scholarships based on their racial backgrounds. The educational experience of many Asian Americans is biased. To drive the social agenda of the Asian American community of affirmative action, equity must be allowed to prevail in the selection processes of students set to join universities. The excessive acceptance by the educational establishments on the previous cases of racial discrimination threaten the authorities to face stern legal actions form the social change activists. In fact, intersectionality in the education system is prime in the classroom balance experience in multiple learning institutions of the United States. Furthermore, affirmative action requires the equal enrollment of the minority into the prestigious educational systems, to eliminate the educational segregation attached to racial diversity. The immigration experiences of the Asian Americans present a partisan treatment of the immigrants based on their racial background. The continuous efforts by the elected members of the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) indicate the difficult requirements that the authorities have put in place to discourage the inhabitation of undocumented immigrants in the United States. Such provisions as the military enlistment and the requirement of good moral conduct cast the Asian American community in the bad picture as they require many strict eligibility criteria to be permanent legal residents of the United States.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Materiality in Auditing - Essay Example Materiality levels of organization are often undisclosed to avoid fraud that may be conducted by the parties involved in preparing financial statements. Analysis of the fundamentalism and the secrecy of materiality are essential in understanding how this concept is applicable in the auditing profession. Materiality is a concept that describes discrepancies in the financial statements that may mislead the decision making process of users of those records (Stuart, 2012). The discrepancies may be included or omitted in the financial statements intentionally or as a result of errors in recording. If users of accounting records would not change their decision after the correction of the discrepancies, the misstatement are said to be immaterial. However, if users of financial statements would change their decisions after the corrections, then the discrepancies are said to be material (Messier, Martinov-Bennie, & Eilifsen, 2005, p. 5). Materiality in the financial statements may be individual or collective. Individual materiality is the one that occurs when a record in an account is recorded wrongly. Collective materiality, on the other hand, is the one that arises when the total discrepancies in two or more accounts of a similar classification mislead decision makers (FRC, 2013). Auditors have to determine the level of discrepancies that they will find to be immaterial and those that are material at the planning stage. The materiality level is usually stated in quantitative figures such as percentages. For example, the auditors may state that a misstatement of the income before tax by 5% and below is immaterial while the error is material of it exceeds this allowance (Lessambo, 2013). Examiners use professional judgement to determine the materiality allowances because there is no formula of calculating the amount. Auditors make their judgements based on their understanding of the factors that influence the decisions of users of financial reports (IAASB, 2009).
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Foreign Capital Essay Foreign capital: The capital available to any country other than the domestic capital in order to finance any domestic purpose is called foreign capital. Need for Foreign Capital 1.Capital investment requirements Ã¢â¬â Since underdeveloped countries want to industrialize themselves within a short period of time, it becomes necessary to increase capital investment substantially. This requires a high level of savings. However, because of general poverty, the savings are very low. This creates a resource gap between investment needs and savings. This gap has to be filled through foreign capital. 2. Technology transfers Ã¢â¬â The under developed countries have lower technological capacity as compared to advanced countries. The desire for industrialization creates the need for importing technology from advanced countries. Such technology transfer usually comes with foreign capital in the form of private foreign investment or foreign collaboration. The technological gap is reduced by training domestic personnel and through establishment of educational, research or training institutes. 3. Exploitation of natural resources Ã¢â¬â A number of underdeveloped countries possess huge mineral resources, which can be exploited for economic development. These countries do not possess the required technical skill and expertise to accomplish this task. As a consequence, they have to depend upon foreign capital to undertake the exploitation of their mineral wealth. 4. Development of entrepreneurship Ã¢â¬â Many under developed countries suffer from shortage of private entrepreneurs. This creates a limitation in the process of industrialization. Foreign capital undertakes the risk of investment in host countries and thus provides the much-needed impetus to the process of industrialization. Once the process of industrialization gets started with foreign capital, domestic industrial activity also increases through greater local participation. This automatically develops local entrepreneurship. 5. Development of economic infrastructure Ã¢â¬â The domestic capital in under developed countries is inadequate to build the required level of economicÃ infra structure. Thus these countries require the assistance of foreign capital to undertake this task. Over the last 50 years, international financial institutions and governments of advanced countries have made substantial capital available to the under developed countries to develop their economic infrastructure in the form of transport and communications systems, generation and distribution of electricity, development of irrigation facilities, etc. The basic intention is to build an economic model for achieving sustainable development. 6. Financing balance of payments deficit Ã¢â¬â In the initial phase of economic development, under developed countries face larger imports (in the form of machinery, capital goods, industrial raw materials, spares and components), than exports. The deficit in the balance of trade is financed by inflow of foreign capital. The economic development of an underdeveloped country therefore needs foreign capital to initiate its economic development process and sustain it till desired level of stability is reached
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Free Essay on Study Plan Essay 1. Do my best to finish all the three tasks in English course 2. Enlarge my vocabulary 3. Improve my writing and speaking skills Long-term goals Have TOEIC and OPlc test in next yearÃ¢â¬â¢s winter vacation and get the level at least 900 Action plan For short-term goals 1. I need to spend enough time on doing the tasks and e-portfolio of the English course. And do my best to work with my partner or group member to complete the tasks. 2. I have some problem about vocabulary which influences other aspects of my English study. So I think it is really important to enlarge my vocabulary. The first way is making a study group in Academy. I have done one and a half of them and find it really helpful because there are some tasks we can do to use the words so that we can remember the words. Reading the English Articles and watching the English Movies are also good ways. Another thing I can do is using the word cards and reviewing them frequently. 3. To improve my writing skill, write the passage in English frequently and try to prevent the grammar mistakes. To improve my speaking skills, actually there are a lot of opportunities. I can speak English everyday by using telephone English to enhance my pronunciation. And I also need to speak more in class or just chat with exchange students and local students.
The Process Of Workforce Planning In Supermarkets Business Essay Work force planning is the process of analysing anÃ organisations likely future needs for people in terms of numbers,Ã skillsÃ and locations. It allows the organisation to plan how those needs can be met throughÃ recruitmentÃ andÃ training. It is vital for aÃ companyÃ like Tesco to plan ahead. Because the company is growing, Tesco needs to recruit on a regular basis for both the food and non-food parts of the business. Positions become available because: jobs are created as the company opens new stores in the UK and expands internationally vacancies arise asÃ employeesÃ leave the company when they retire or resign or getÃ promotionÃ to other positions within Tesco new types of jobs can be created as the company changes its processes andÃ technology Tesco uses aÃ workforce planningÃ table to establish the likelyÃ demandÃ for new staff. This considers both managerial and non-managerial positions. In 2008/09, for example, Tesco calculates that to support its businessÃ growthÃ there will be a demand for around 4,000 new managers. The planning process This planning process runs each year from the last week in February. There are quarterly reviews in May, August and November, so Tesco can adjust staffing levels and recruit where necessary. This allows Tesco sufficient time andÃ flexibilityÃ to meet its demands for staff and allows the company to meet itsÃ strategicÃ objectives, for example, to open new stores and maintainÃ customerHYPERLINK http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/glossaryservice-standards-1285.phpservice standards. Tesco seeks to fill many vacancies from within the company. It recognises the importance of motivating its staff to progress their careers with the company. Tesco practises what it calls talent planning. This encourages people to work their way through and up the organisation. Through an annualÃ appraisalÃ scheme, individuals can apply for bigger jobs. Employees identify roles in which they would like to develop their careers with Tesco. Their manager sets out the technical skills,Ã competenciesÃ and behaviours necessary for these roles, what training this will require and how long it will take the person to be ready to do the job. This helps Tesco to achieve itsÃ business objectivesÃ and employees to achieve their personal and career objectives. Job descriptions and personÃ specifications An important element in workforce planning is to have clear job descriptions and person specifications. A job description sets out: the title of the job to whom the job holder is responsible for whom the job holder is responsible a simple description of roles and responsibilities A person specification sets out the skills, characteristics and attributes that a person needs to do a particular job. Together, job descriptions and person specifications provide the basis forÃ job advertisements. They help job applicants and post-holders to know what is expected of them. As they are sent to anyone applying for jobs, they should: contain enough information to attract suitable people act as a checking device to make sure that applicants with the right skills are chosen for interview set the targets and standards for job performance Job descriptions and person specifications show how a job-holder fits into the Tesco business. They help Tesco to recruit the right people. They also provide aÃ benchmarkÃ for each job in terms of responsibilities and skills. These help managers to assess if staff are carrying out jobs to the appropriate standards. TescosÃ organisational structureÃ has the customer at the top. Tesco needs people with the rightÃ skillsÃ at each level of this structure. There are six work levels within the organisation. This gives a clear structure for managing and controlling the organisation. Each level requires particular skills and behaviours. Work level 1Ã frontline jobs working directly with customers. Various in-store tasks, such as filling shelves withstock. Requires the ability to work accurately and with enthusiasm and to interact well with others. Work level 2Ã leading aÃ teamÃ ofÃ employeesÃ who deal directly with customers. Requires the ability to manageÃ resources, to setÃ targets, to manage and motivate others. Work level 3Ã running an operating unit. RequiresÃ managementÃ skills, includingÃ planning, target setting and reporting. Work level 4Ã supporting operating units and recommendingÃ strategicchange. Requires good knowledge of the business, the skills to analyse information and to make decisions, and the ability to lead others. Work level 5Ã responsible for the performance of Tesco as a whole. Requires the ability to lead and direct others, and to make major decisions. Work level 6Ã creating the purpose,Ã valuesÃ andÃ goalsÃ for Tesco plc. Responsibility for Tescos performance. Requires a good overview ofretailing, and the ability to build aÃ visionÃ for the future and lead the whole organisation. Tesco has a seven-part framework that describes the key skills and behaviours for each job at every level in the company. This helps employees understand whether they have the right knowledge, skills or resources to carry out their roles involves attracting the rightÃ standardÃ of applicants to apply for vacancies. Tesco advertises jobs in different ways. The process varies depending on the job available. Internal recruitment Tesco first looks at its internal Talent Plan to fill a vacancy. This is a process that lists currentÃ employeesÃ looking for a move, either at the same level or onÃ promotion. If there are no suitable people in this Talent Plan or developing on the internalmanagementÃ developmentÃ programme, Options, Tesco advertises the post internally on itsÃ intranetÃ for two weeks. External recruitment For external recruitment, Tesco advertises vacancies via the Tesco website www.tesco-careers.com or through vacancy boards in stores. Applications are made online for managerial positions. The chosen applicants have an interview followed by attendance at anÃ assessment centreÃ for the final stage of theÃ selectionÃ process. People interested in store-based jobs with Tesco can approach stores with theirÃ CVÃ or register though Jobcentre Plus. The store prepares a waiting list of people applying in this way and calls them in as jobs become available. For harder-to-fill or more specialist jobs, such as bakers and pharmacists, Tesco advertises externally: through its website and offlineÃ media through television and radio by placing advertisements on Google or in magazines such asÃ The Appointment Journal Tesco will seek the mostÃ cost-effective way of attracting the right applicants. It is expensive to advertise on television and radio, and in some magazines, but sometimes this is necessary to ensure the right type of people get to learn about the vacancies. Tesco makes it easy for applicants to find out about available jobs and has a simple application process. By accessing theÃ Tesco website, an applicant can find out about local jobs, management posts and head office positions. The website has an online application form for people to submit directly.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Riggie White Minister of Defense Riggie White was not only an outstanding Football player but also a well-established Minister. He had many outstanding achievements during his foot ball career. He has also done a lot for the church. So white was a well-rounded leader in the African American Community. After an All-American senior season at Tennessee, White began his pro career with the Memphis Showboats of the USFL in 1984. He joined the Philadelphia Eagles, who held his NFL rights, after the USFL folded in 1985. For eight years, he played a major role in Philadelphia's "Gang Green Defense." Which seem to be unstoppable at this time. White signed as a free agent with Green Bay in 1993 for $17 million over four years. His signing, along with a trade for Favre, helped make the Packers champions again. He was the first major black player to sign with the Packers as a free agent. With this decision he made surprised many b/c he want to be in a large city where he could minister to young black youth. While with the Packers White and the team made consecutive appearances to the Super Bowl where in 1997 with a win over New England White set a record with three sacks. White was 39 when he finished his NFL career with Carolina, leaving the game with 198 sacks. That was actually White's third retirement. He retired for one day before the 1998 season, but then said God had told him he needed to play again, and he returned to the Packers. White retired again after the 1998 season and took a year off from football. After the Packers allowed him out of his contract, White returned to play for the Panthers where he finished his football career. White worked tirelessly in the off season with inner-city youth. But his image was tarnished when he gave a speech to the Wisconsin Legislature in which he denounced homosexuality and used ethnic stereotypes. White later apologized for any harm his comments may have caused. He put his fame and star powers to less controversial use in 1996 after his Tennessee church was burned down.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Jungle - Chicago Will Be Ours "Their home! Their home! They had lost it! Grief, despair, rage, overwhelmed him - what was any imagination of the thing to this heart-breaking, crush reality of it ... Only think what he had suffered for that house - what miseries they had all suffered for that house - the price they had paid for it!" "The Jungle", by Upton Sinclair, gives a heart breaking portrayal of the hardships faced by the countless poverty stricken laborers in the slaughter houses of Chicago. As in the quote above, a struggling family underwent months of back breaking labor only to loose their house at the drop of a hat. It was a desperate and unmerciful time when an accidentally fractured ankle cost a man his job and his family food and shelter. In the early 1900's, strikes, riots, labor unions, and new political parties arose across the country. The government, with its laissez-faire attitude, allowed business to consolidate into trusts, and with lack of competition, into powerful monopolies. These multi-million dollar monopolies were able to exploit every opportunity to make greater fortunes regardless of human consequences. Sinclair illustrates the harsh conditions in Packingtown through a Lithuanian immigrant family and their struggles to survive. Ona, a young and frail woman, and Jurgis, a hardworking and strong man and the husband of Ona, come to America with some of their family to find work and to make a new and better life for themselves. With everyone finding employment right away, the family begins their lives in America with optimism, enthusiasm, and ignorance. Taking a huge risk, they purchase a small rickety house. Slowly, they awaken to the harsh realities of their surroundings. There's the mortg... ...workingman is common ownership and democratic management of production. Schliemann, a socialist, explains that "anyone would be able to support himself by an hour's work a day." Sinclair goes even further by referring to socialism as the "new religion of humanity" to oppose the "jungle" in which the workingman slaves. Finally, Sinclair tries to convert his readers to socialism and reject capitalism by using numbers. At the end of the novel, he shows the increasing popularity of socialism as the number of votes increase. In Chicago, the number of votes for socialism started at next to nothing and, by the end of the book, there were nearly fifty thousand votes. Leaving the reader with a sense of optimism that socialism may one day triumph, Sinclair ends the novel with hope for the workingman as he zealously writes, "Chicago will be ours! Chicago will be ours!"
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Army announced yesterday that it missed its recruiting goal for the fourth consecutive month, a deepening manpower crisis that officials said would require a dramatic summer push for recruits if the service is to avoid missing its annual enlistment target for the first time since 1999. The Army will make a "monumental effort" to bring in the average 10,000 recruits a month required this summer, said Maj. Gen. Michael D. Rochelle, head of the Army's recruiting command. An additional 500 active-duty recruiters will be added in the next two months -- on top of an increase of 1,000 earlier this year. The Pentagon is also considering asking Congress to double the enlistment bonus it can offer to the most-prized recruits -- from $20,000 to $40,000 -- and to raise the age limit for Army active-duty service from 35 to 40, he said. "The challenge is one of historic proportions," Rochelle said, acknowledging that he is not sure whether the traditional summer surge in Army recruits will take place, or how large it might be. Violent, long deployments to Iraq and a sound job market at home have combined to reduce what the Army calls the "propensity to enlist" -- the percentage of young Americans willing to consider Army service -- which dropped from 11 percent last year to about 7 percent this year. "What I don't know, in all candor, is how the reduced propensity will dampen" the recruiting prospects of summer, Rochelle said in an interview. "I wish the summer period were about twice as long." The Army's recruiting difficulties are only expected to grow. "Next year promises quite frankly, given the size of our entry pool, to be an even tougher fight," he said. "God forbid a downward trend" in the willingness to serve, he added. The Army missed its May active-duty recruiting goal of 6,700 by 1,661 recruits, pushing the shortfall for fiscal 2005 to 8,321 -- or more than a month's worth of recruits. The shortfall would have been 37 percent if the Army had not lowered its May goal. Overall, the Army has sent 40,964 enlistees to boot camp, and has four months to nearly double that figure to reach the 80,000 goal for this fiscal year. Army, Navy and Marine Corps reserve forces also missed their goals for May. Army National Guard enlistments for the month fell short by 29 percent, Army Reserves by 18 percent, Marine Corps Reserves by 12 percent and Navy Reserves by 4 percent, according to figures released yesterday by the Pentagon.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Most African American families in the South were lower class and committed dangerous acts to survive, Ã¢â¬Å"Richard suffered poverty and hunger experiences that later became themes of his workÃ¢â¬ . He would have to wait a long period of time before food was available for him, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to wait till I get a job to buy foodÃ¢â¬ . The lower class did desperate things to get money Ã¢â¬Å"Richard sneak into saloons and begs for pennies and drinksÃ¢â¬ . Many African Americans suffered horribly from poverty, Ã¢â¬Å"My mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ suffering grew into a symbol, gathering to itself all the poverty, the ignorance, the helplessness, the pain, hunger ridden days and hoursÃ¢â¬ . The Jim Crow South brought many adversities for Blacks and poverty was a major part of that. Poverty not only took away the physical things in their lives, but also it took away from their internal selves as human beings. The things they had in their lives that they were deprived of, did not mean as much to them as losing who they are as a person, Ã¢â¬Å"I would send other words to tell, to march, to fight, to create a sense of the hunger of life that gnaws in us all, to keep alive in our hearts a sense of the inexpressibly humanÃ¢â¬ . Racism in the Jim Crow South was brutal, unnecessary, and in some cases fatal. Racism in the United States South was a major theme, and impacted the life of Richard both in a positive and negative way. The only positive aspect of it was that he and many other African Americans overcame it and helped them become better people. In most cases racism affected lives in a negative way. Most African Americans were both physically and mentally pushed to their limit and caused permanent scars in their lives, Ã¢â¬Å"Having been thrust out of the world because of my race, I had accepted my destiny by not being curious about what shaped itÃ¢â¬ , The quote by Richard shows the racism was present and unfair, you can still move on and not let it be damaging to your daily lives and emotions. Richard experienced many abusive events resulting from racism, Ã¢â¬Å"He experienced some of the most severe abuses of racial oppression in MississippiÃ¢â¬ . African Americans have the theory that White people are dangerous and not to be trusted, Ã¢â¬Å"the Jim Crow South was a system of racial segregation practiced in some states of the US, and it gave whites a reason to treat Blacks as second class citizensÃ¢â¬ . Richard falls into a category of Black youth who fears the White community and has a hard time interacting with them, Ã¢â¬Å"Richard feels psychological tension around WhitesÃ¢â¬ . The major reason why Richard is a part of the Great Migration and fled North is because of racism. The segregation Blacks had to deal with also took away many educational opportunities, Ã¢â¬Å"No education could alter what the meaning of living, came only when one was strugglingÃ¢â¬ . Racism took away many privileges and rights away from Blacks. Many African Americans in the South moved north for better opportunities, and this vast moment was known as the Great Migration. It was hard for many African Americans to leave the South because that was the only life they knew, Ã¢â¬Å"Nine out of ten African Americans lived in the American South in 1900, by 1930, 3 in 10 lived outside the houseÃ¢â¬ . Richard WrightsÃ¢â¬â¢ Black Boy shows how racism destroyed the lives of many African Americans, but for some it did just the opposite, as for Richard it drove him to be the successful writer he is today. Violence affected African American youth in a negative way, and it varied how they let it affect the rest of their lives. Poverty took a major toll on the lives of African Americans during the Jim Crow South system, and affected the majority in an unconstructive way. Racism made a huge impact on the lives of the Blacks because it affected their emotions, physicality, home life, and way of being. For some, racism lead to death or completely ruined their lives, but others took the hardship of racism and went with it in the opposite direction. Richard Wright, once a trouble African American boy, now a flourishing writer.
Friday, August 16, 2019
INTRODUCTION Television and Children: Today, TV is acquiring a strangehold on the lives of the children. The impact of television has been accentuated by the rapid nuclearisation of Indian middle class homes. Children who increasingly come home to empty homes in urban India watch a great deal of television much of it unsupervised. Television is threatening the minds of children and weakening the influence of parents on children. Television the entertainer, is more popular than television the informer and the educator.Children develop basic television literacy by simply watching television; no one needs to be taught to Ã¢â¬Å"readÃ¢â¬ televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolic code. This audion-visual medium predominates in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s life very early. Television viewing is often part of their everyday social behavior. It is decreasing community participation. Children made use of whoever was nearby; as joint participants and as a source of information or as live audience to childrenÃ¢â¬â ¢s comments. It seems that lack of provision of special activities which children do away from home is one significant factor in the amount of television they watch.Families with more money to spend on recreation and those who live in areas where a range of facilities are available and those who can provide alternatives to television watching are at an advantage. Television is changing what children do with their free time and even the nature of interaction within the home and between the members of their family. Playtime is adjusted to watch television so is sleep and study. Television became the central factor around which children and parents schedule their work time. The maximum re-scheduling is in the case of play.Seventy seven percent of the children interviewed by Sevanti Ninan a media researcher, said they organized their play according to television programmes. Eating did not need much re-scheduling. They ate as they watched. Children are sufficiently addicted to take in t heir favorite programmes. Children constitute the major section of the viewing audience. An interested and willing audience is more receptive to learning than a group of audience who have been forced into attendance. Television for children has become a focal point of their lives.Television is considered a remedy for problematic children. Just as ads bestowed a new kind of power upon child consumers. Television seems to distrupt conventional power dynamics between child and adult. Popular media complained that the television image has usurped the authority previously held by parents and teachers. As numerous youngsters indicated that they often watched programmes which their parents disapproved them to watch. In India most of these fears are compounded by the fact that the children watch mostly film based programmes.If there is one unifying force in Indian, it is the mania for watching movies, irrespective of age, class, language, sex, or background for the vast majority of children , Hindi films and film songs are the first choice and with the kind of satellite boom that India is witnessing today, there is no lack of films on television. In the past, anxieties about parental control had to do with the fact that television was heavily promoted in families with children. During the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s Western countries manufactured and retailers discovered children were a lucrative consumer market for the sale of household commodities.Even at this young age, children can exercise choice. As one of the newest household items television was quickly recognized for its potential appeal to young children. The number of television sets tend to be high in families with children more than childless couples did. Audience research showed that parents believed that television could keep their children of the streets and thus from trouble. IMPACT OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN (Between the age groups of 7-14) Ã¢â¬ËYehi hai right choice baby, aha!Sang two young rag-picker s as they wade through a heap of rubbish gathering scraps of metal, paper and old bottles to sell. Hips swinging and voices raised the children seemed to be caught in a spirited bubble which for instance was lifting them above the dirt and filth on which they danced. Pepsi; the advertisement on television rules the minds and imagination of thousands of children regardless of their situation. At the first glance television is colorful. It is vital alive and visually spectacular. Television and advertisements go hand in hand they are an ssential part of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s broadcasting. Children are becoming part of a universal tribe of human beings for whom television is as real and influential as parents or a school. They are absorbing new ideas and impressions about the world mediated by the television long before they are capable of articulating their own thoughts. Television has ushered in an information revolution. It has revolutionized the concept of leisure in India. Children are l ikely to be most vulnerable population to be influenced by the contents of television transmission.Television acts as a source of information, education, entertainment and consumerism and it is through these functions that it is likely to influence the viewer. Research on television and children have concluded that television has positive and negative consequences on children. On the other hand, TV viewing helps in seeking knowledge about different things and it inhibits childÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginative capabilities. Revolution in the Indian advertising scene: 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s have turned out to be dynamic decade for Indian advertisers and marketers. The introduction of color television during Asiad in Sept. 982, and later the emergence of serials culminating in perennial favourites like Ramayana and Mahabharata along with the realization by advertisers and marketers to capitalize on this electronic medium with its tremendous visual impact when advertising crossed the Rs. 200 crore mark, in 1988-89 from only Rs. 20 crore. Advertisements directly beamed at children either as consumers or as influencers has now become an important market strategy in India today. Kids are highly skilled, however, at getting their parents to purchase what they canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy for themselves.In this sense, they represent considerable buying behavior. Children do not react to advertisements in a vacuum. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re influenced by what Mummy and Daddy say, what he/she knows about the product from television, friends and other sources. The first marketers to exploit television for their child oriented product was Food Specialities Ltd. , for their Maggie noodles, which was launched in 1983, March. According to a study conducted by the Business World Magazine (Feb. 1986) it became the most successful consumer product.Another kid directed product that met with a success was in the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s was Rasna softdrink concentrate made by Pioma Industries Ltd. They blantantly exploited the lovable c hild artistes and the powerful medium of television. Who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember, Ã¢â¬Å"I Love You RasnaÃ¢â¬ lisped by child artist Ankita Jhaveri. Their sales increased from Rs. 80 lakhs in 1982 to 25 crores in 1988. Television became the major advertising medium followed by magazines and newspapers. Biscuits and toys are two major child-oriented products that have undergone a sea change during this decade.The toy market in India is now valued at Rs. 70 crores in this organized sector alone with a growth potential of 20-25%. Not surprisingly, television is the medium of choice for most advertisers targeting the child market. Many even quite young children watch adult programming and are consequently exposed to advertisements normally aimed at adults. When it comes to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of television advertising, it is clear that very young children see television in a conceptual vacuum in which they cannot distinguish one from the other and know that an advertisement is trying to sell them something.They are, however, unlikely to have any useful information base, or concept of price and value, by which they can make valid judgments of the television ads. Selectivity in viewing commercials increases with age. Another reason why television is so important, apart from its window to the world position is that it is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s most important sources of information is which allows the use of all the effects that appeal to kids. Children have a very low boredom threshold; a penchant for images and bright colors and an ability to absorb more details than adults in a shorter period of time (Travel weekly 9 Sept. 1991).The boredom threshold of a child is frustrating low; (Marketing week 21 Aug. 1992. ) Marketing consumer products to children; Advertising to children is no plain task. They are unpredictable, difficult to research, though highly conscious of things around them. Marketing communication that is straight, simple, honest and filled wit h fun is most likely to win their confidence as customers. There are various strategies in marketing to children. A direct appeal in which the promotion is directly oriented to kids for products like pencils, chocolates, soft drinks, etc. Another approach is directed to the parents through the child.The child is used as hook to buy the product, for all sort of products including consumer durables like Videocon washing machines. Children have thus become the innocent and hidden persuaders. Babies have been employed with winning effect in ads for ages, by Glaxo, Nestle and Johnson and Johnson. The Murphy Radio baby is still on calendars all over India. Children influence parents to buy products of their choice. Children themselves make purchases of goods and services for their personal use and satisfaction. With the nuclearisation of families, children are coming home to empty homes and end up watching longer hours of television.Parents who find less time to spend with their children feel guilty and adopt a softer attitude towards requests from children ranging from cereals to computers. Mothers perceive that television advertisements influences the children and they estimate the effects of commercials by the frequency with which their children attempt to influence the purchase at home. Parents are now vulnerable to their appeal and positive parental response varies depending up on the nature of appeal used by children. According to a study conducted by D.Stone who was the Marketing Manager of the London College of Printing and distributive trades. The study was titled Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising and ChildrenÃ¢â¬ . When he asked the parents, How often does your child influence you on deciding on your purchases? The findings were; Food 8. 2%, ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Clothes 50%, Furniture 30% Holidays 50%, Parents Clothes 20%. And how do Children Perceive their influence on adults purchases. Do your grown-ups listen to your views when they buy. Drinks 75, Shoes 65%, Clothes 6 5. 6%, Sweets 62. 0%. Holidays 35%, Soaps 33%, Parents clothes 30. 8%. Advertisements in the multi-channel environment.The emergence of the multi-channel environment in 1991 seems to have brought with it at least some modest changes in overall ad scene. Children have more diverse range of products to chose from and are being promoted, especially on the networks channels. Moreover, the amount of advertising varies considerably across channel types. Displacement factors need to be taken into account when assessing the impact of advertising on children. The most important dispositional factor influencing the affects of TV ad is age, first class and third class children are more strongly affected by TV ads than children from fifth grade children.The greatest impact of television advertising on child is felt in their language, according to teachers of Delhi school where the study was conducted by Namita Unnikrishnan. They said that children now speak to one another in a Ã¢â¬Å"lingoÃ¢â¬ dotted with words, Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âhomeÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Results: Parental guidance behaviors are generally too Ã¢â¬Å"unfocussedÃ¢â¬ to produce desired outcomes. Parents reports watching with their children and encouraging them to view appropriate programmes failed to alter children conception and talking to them about TV was effective only when educational shows were shown.Discouragement from watching objectionable shows also made children more critical, but parents own viewing habits were not the model of behavior and attitudes that had been anticipated. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s age was found to relate to their TV notions and to how parents guided their viewing but not to the relationships established between guidance and perceptions. Family views: The effect of training parents to mediate their ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s viewing on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehension of commercials. Matthews, Denise Ph. D University of Florida 1994.Children form primary and secondary classes were pre-tested for three levels of comprehension of TV advt; ability to discriminate between programme and commercial and understanding the deceptive potential of commercial. ChildÃ¢â¬â¢s pretest ability varied widely among the three levels of commercial comprehension and ability to discriminate commercials from programme was relatively high and increased only slightly in the post test and pretest level of understanding commercialÃ¢â¬â¢s deceptive potential was low and remained low on the post test.However, pretest measures of understanding the intent of commercials were mixed with scores of recognition and low scores on free response items. Significant pretest increased for the experimental group in articulating intent of the commercial. It suggests that parents can be motivated successfully to appreciate their children in understand ing the TV content and that they will be most effective when tapping comprehension within the childÃ¢â¬â¢s zone of proximal development. The relationship between TV exposure and physical activity among the 6th grade children. Francis, Lorna Lee, Ph.D University of Orgeon, 1983. Results: indicated that while there was statistically significant correlation between TV viewing time and physical activity, the magnitude of the relationship was insufficient to be of practical significance. There was also no significant relationship between TV viewing time and level of physical fitness. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical activity and their physical fitness were relatively independent of the TV viewing time. The perceived influence of TV on achievement in children and achievement and adolescents in Thailand. Chompaisal, Swangchit, Ph.D Illinois State University 1994. The research was conducted to study the perceived influence of TV viewing on the school achievement of children and adults in Thaila nd. Study based on a sample of 2520 children and adults from 6 regions of Thailand during second semester of 93-94. Results: Reveal that the children and adults spend an average of 21 hours a week in viewing television. Students who spend fewer hours watching television have higher school achievement. Parents who monitor their childÃ¢â¬â¢s television viewing contribute to better school achievement.Factorial analysis shows no statistically significant relationship between motivation of television viewing and the general performance at school. Need for Study Today, television is part of childÃ¢â¬â¢s growing environment. It has become a window through which they view the world. Advertisement and TV go hand in hand. TV without advertisement looks an unrealistic proposition. It is no exaggeration to say that TV Programmes are made keeping in view the ad support which can help them to sustain them for a longer period of time.It is no wonder that many a beautiful programmes had to be c ancelled due to lack of sponsors. Every child is a bundle of potentiality. An interested and willing audience is more receptive to learning than a group of viewers who have been forced into audience. Children are considered vulnerable and susceptible to TV influence. TV advertisement are the creation of brilliant minds and wonderfully talented people who have but one mission in life to persuade us to buy and buy. TV advertisements are masterpieces. These dressed messages get carried to adults and the children on the same level.TV Advertisements being brief, repetitive and catchy influences the kids. Advertisements can sometimes be unfair to children since they do not have the skill and the experience to process the advertisement messages in the context of reality and needs. Many of the advertisements aimed at children show that muscle and bluster get you what you want. If you want Babul bubble gun, the quickest way is to brandish a gun. Cartoons and computer games have an inordinate amount of violence and children soon get desensitized to the violence.Questions about effects of television advertisements on television have frequently been raised by Television critics. Investigators have examined the effects of TV programmes on children, but little published research exists in this area. Conversely much research has examined effects of television Advertisements, but the focus has been on adults rather than on children. It would be native to use these sources to derive hypothesis for research studies of effects of commercials on children. The content, structure and repetitive presentation of the commercials messages are different from programmes.So the effects on children and adults should be different. Moreover, hypothesis about effects of television advertisements on children simply cannot be derived from research with adults. A fourteen-year old boy was killed in OctÃ¢â¬â¢97 when he tried to emulate the bungee-jumping shown in a popular TV soft drink adverti sement. What is ads doing to children and what is the impact of TV on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s need to be given a thorough study in this era of consumerism. After all children are the most avid watches of Television programmes. It has become a central point in their lives.For all these reasons, the overall purpose of the present research programme is to explain the effects of television advertisement on children between 7-14 years of age. Objectives of the study: To study the viewership of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programme on DD National, DD-II, Sony Entertainment TV and Eenadu TV. To study the awareness, exposure and comprehension and recall of ads. To study the influence of advertisements on kids buying behavour. Scope: Two schools one located in Hyderguda St. Pauls Boys High School and the other is located in Chapel Road, Sujatha Public Girls School.Kids from 5th class to 10th Class where chosen for the study. Methodology The procedure adopted for the collection of the data was a questionnair e consisting of 17 close ended questions and two sub-questions and two open ended questions were asked. Universe The Universe for the study was two schools. The classes chosen from each school were six. The Universe for the study had 600 students. Sample A stratified random sample of the universe has been taken out of these 600 students. 120 students were taken as the sample for the study. That is around 20 percent. The sample consisted of equal number of boys and girls.Ten each from each class were taken. The questionnaire were later analyzed and tabulated accordingly. The ads were monitored for this research on four channels. DD National: Viewership and reach are the highest in India. It airs its programmes in Hindi the national language of India. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Programmes; Great Expectations and Heman. DD-II: Viewership and reach many not the same as DD National. Airs a lot of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programmes everyday from 05. 00 pm to 07. 00. These include a variety of cartoon sh ows very popular with children. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Programmes: Boy meet world, Flash Gordon, Blossom, Telesoccer,RimbaÃ¢â¬â¢s Island, Our friend the Dolphins, Quack Pack Spiderman, Mickey and Friends, Green Teen Quiz, Dennis the Menance, Jaldi Jaldi Game show, Goof Troops, Chip and Dale, Super Human Syber Squad, Heman and the Masters of the Universe. Sony Entertainment Television: Airs its programmes in Hindi. It is a satellite channel. Airs childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programmes every day from 05 00 pm to 07 30 pm. The programmes include comedies and cartoon shows. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Programmes: Bewitched, Different Strokes, Silver Spoons, He-man, Real Ghost Busters, who is the boss? Eenadu Television:Regional Channel Airs it programmes in te local language Telugu. The usual stuff films and film songs dominate the channel. Very less childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programmes are aired. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programmes: Charlie Chaplin, Bhale Denver, Stone Boy, Baboi Dennis. The ads that are aired during these programmes were monitored from 01. 12. 97 to 15. 12. 97. The ads were as follows: Food ads: Drinks-Coco-cola, Pepsi, Health drinks-Complan, Maltova, Top Ramen Smoodles, Maggie Rich Soups, Macaroni Pack Maggie Pickle, Kellogs Wheat Flakes, Kellogs Cornflakes, Milk Bikis, Kellogs Frosties, Eclairs Gems, WriggleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Juicy Fruit Bubblegum, Tez Tea.Choclates-Kit-kat, CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Perk, Nestle Milky Bar, ParryÃ¢â¬â¢s Maho Lacto king, CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s 5-star, Uncle Chips, Ruffles Lays, Big Babool, Boomer, Glucogold, Bourbon Biscuits, Dabur Honey, Allens Koffees, Frolicck Ice Cream, Alpenliebe and Annapurna Atta. Babu Foods: Cerelac and Farex. Clothes and Foot Wear: Garden pure silk, Kalanjali, Action Shoes, Books and stationary: Diamond comics, Stic Colur Pens, Zee Ball Pen, Mayapuri Film Magazine, Rotomac Pens, Archies Cards, Saber Free Styles pens, Dreamland Books, Reynolds pens, Jetter pen, Camlin Velvetta Ball pen. Others:Vardhaman Knitting Yarn, Raid (Insecticide), Novin o Gold Batteries, Aron Alpha, Hero Cycles, Sunrise coffee, Royale Paints, Rohan Badam Shrim, Sunny and Maxima Watch. Toys: Funskool, G I Joe. Medicinal: Borosoft, Hansaplast, Hajmola, Megamind 2 Plus Soaps: Dove, Lux, Jai, and Palmolive. Shampoos: Organics, Lux, Sunsilk, Heads and Shoulders. Tooth Pastes: Colgate, Close-up, Pepsodent. Creams: Lakme, Nivea and Charmis. These ads when analysed can be concluded safely that they are dominated by food ads. The number of chocolate ads are higher than any other product ads.These ads employ child artists. Operational Definitions 1. Awareness: The first stage of traditional adoption process. 2. Behaviour:Conduct, manners, general course of life, treatment of others, mode of action, response to stimulus. 3. Consumer:a term used to describe two different kinds of consuming entitles: Personal consumers and organizational consumers who buy products, equipment and services in order to run their organizations. 4. Decision:A choice made from tow or more alternatives. 5. Family:Two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption who reside together. . Marketing:Activities design to enhance the flow of goods, services and ideas from producers to consumers in order to satisfy consumer needs and wants. 7. Product:A product is a set of tangible and intangible attributes, including packaging, color, manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s prestige, retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s prestige and manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s and retailers services, which the buyer may accept as offering satisfaction of wants and needs.DATA PRESENTATION Total number of respondents-120 Boys-60 Girls-60 Do you watch TelevisionYes/NoPercent Boys60100 Girls60100 Total120100 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â contd to page no 40 Data Analysis Majority of the respondents 80. 8% had cable connection, boys and girls were equal in this respect. About 41. 6% of the respondent watch about two hours of television daily. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s movies dominated the viewing time of the chidren (42 %). Followed closely by film-based programmes. 42% of the respondent liked cartoon shows. 76. 9% of the respondents said they liked ads but interesting thing to note is that though some did say they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like advertisements they still could recall ads. 65. % of the respondents said they liked chocolate advertisements closely followed by 23% of clotherÃ¢â¬â¢s and footwear ads. They liked to watched advertisements with children in action and equally adventure advertisements. It was closely followed by advertisements with sportsmen and film-stars (girls liked them more than the boys).Most os the respondents felt that advertisements did not influence them to buy the products, but few that it did influence them very much. More number of boys said that they will not pressurize their parents to buy the products where girls were equal in their positive and negative response. 5% of the respondents gave ambiguous response to the question that do they insist on buying the product af ter watching the advertisement 70% said Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ they do but for the earlier question they said they do not pressurize their parents to buy the product. 65% of the respondent said they received pocket money to spend on themselves. Majority of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s boys and girls said they saved the money that they got as pocket money. Most of the respondents recalled chocolate advertisements more than any other.All the girls recalled Ã¢â¬â¢PerkÃ¢â¬â¢ advertisement more than any other. Important thing was that respondents who said they did not like advertisements too recognized at least three to four advertisements. Suggestions for further study: Subsequent research must fulfill methodological requirements (1) In order to investigate earlier development in watching behavioral reactions to advertisements, sampling must include children younger than those in those in the present research that is from three to seven year old. 2) Sample can be increased from a mere 25 per cent to around 50 percent so that generalizations can be made more freely. (3) Sampling can be done even from rural areas. There is a boom in television viewing in rural areas too. (4) Research is needed to determine why some children and adolescents too develop negative feeling towards advertisements. (5) Research needs to be done into why younger children have high attention span of advertisements than older children that is children above 14 years have a less attention span.
Shakespeare's King Richard the Third deals with the theme of corruption by ambition. The play is designed to depict the tragic and rapid downfall of an evil manipulator who murders, lies, and deceives in order to further his lust for power. Due to the fact that Elizabethan drama moves at a decidedly slower place than most modern stories, any modern director of King Richard the Third, who wanted to hold the interest of contemporary audiences might choose to trim or even eliminate some of the long monologues that are a part of the original play.A good example of where a monologue might be cut is the opening monologue of the play, which is both rhetorically sublime and deservedly famous. In the opening monologue, Richard, who is still the Duke of Gloster, and not yet King, delivers a haunting, expository soliloquy to the audience where he reveals the deep-seated motives for the terrible crimes he will soon commit. After lamenting peace and proclaiming that he is not a lover, Richard say s Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover/ To entertain these fair well-spoken days/ I am determined to prove a villain/ And hate the idle pleasures of these days.Ã¢â¬ (Richard III, 1-1)However, for a modern audience, this exposition is completely unnecessary and, in fact, the suspense of the play would seem to build in an even more starling fashion if Richard did not so overtly express his motives and the audience was made to determine the motives as best they could for themselves as the play develops. The following scene between Richard and Anne, one of the most intense and moving scenes in all of literature, in my opinion, forwards enough of Richard's essentially sociopathic personality and delivers enough information concerning his motives to power as the opening scene.Due to the erotic element of the Richard and Anne scene, the deletion of the opening monologue would foster a very powerful sense of acceleration and suspense. Another scene which might be ben eficial to cut would be the scene between Richard and Queen Elizabeth here Richard admits to having killed her sons. This scene mirrors the earlier scene between Richard and Anne and is meant to reveal Richard as being as manipulative and persuasive as the devil himself.However, I feel that the scene is somewhat redundant and, again, the information about Richard and aspects of his character development which are integral to this scene are expressed elsewhere, most clearly in those scenes which seem to intimate that Richard is Ã¢â¬â if not the devil Ã¢â¬â literally in league with the devil. To further accelerate the plot and to further heighten suspense, these subtle references to black-magic, devils, and the black arts could be magnified.These elements are part of Shakespeare's original play, but they were originally created with a feeling for the sensibilities of an Elizabethan audience. For a modern audience the elements of deviltry and black magic would have to be exaggera ted. One way to do this would be to literally include obvious elements of the supernatural: ghosts, demons, and perhaps even succubi and phantoms who haunt Richard and who inhabit his macabre England.Such a portrayal would also forward the play's theme of raging, damning ambition by demonstrating how a single person's dark-vision could unleash terrible, in fact, supernatural power over an entire nation. In cases of the cult-of-personality, such a dynamic is present even if it is not literally based in the supernatural. The supernatural, however, offers a great way to symbolize the power of demagogues and ambitious leaders that make stark and dramatic statements possible. All in all, if I were directing King Richard the Third I would change very little from Shakespeare's original play.The reason that I would choose to keep the play as close to the original as possible is because I feel the play is already a single, harmonious whole which can be rightly considered one of the greatest tragedies in the English language. I am willing to concede that modern audiences may need a swifter-moving plot and a few embellishments like obvious black magic and devils, but in the long run, Shakespeare's original vision and his original language would still probably prove to be very compelling, memorable, and cathartic for any audience.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
1. What are some ways the Christian gospel is perceived in our culture? To many individuals, the Christian gospel is seen as selective and intolerant. Although we are all free to accept the gift of salvation through Christ, He tells us in John 14:6 that He is Ã¢â¬Å"the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.Ã¢â¬ To many, this will seem intolerant and almost haughty. How can a God who wants nothing more than to have a relationship with us say that there is only one way to do so? 2. What are some specific moral reasons people may reject the Christian gospel? Many individuals who will reject the Christian gospel do so for moral reasons such as their sexual preferences (gay, bi, or straight), their marital status, or the apparent intolerant moral code found in the Word of God. People believe that you have to give up everything that is worldly to follow Christ, and that Christians think they are more righteous than others. The fact is, you will have to give up living in sin, and you will have to give up treasures of the world, but the heavenly treasures that you gain will outshine any possession that you will have on this earth. 3. What are some specific emotional reasons people may reject the Christian gospel? One specific emotional reason that people will reject the Christian gospel is that they cannot grasp the concept of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s unconditional love. God loves each and every one of us, even the worst sinner, and tells us in His Word. People will say things like Ã¢â¬Å"God would not let me be poor, or God would not have let me be abused like I was.Ã¢â¬ Even though we are all loved by God, and He wants us to have a relationship with Him and be happy and well, even the most devout Christian has to go through trials and tribulations. 4. What are some specific intellectual reasons people may reject the Christian gospel? For most Christians, believing in God is Ã¢â¬Å"faith-based,Ã¢â¬ and that there is no room for science and fact in Christianity. Many non-Christians will say that the Bible is nothing more than a collection of fairy tales for those who are easily enchanted and to make the people who read them feel good. The intellectual non-believerÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence that the Bible has no basis in factÃ is one reason that they will reject the message, even though there is historical proof to show that Christ lived, died, and was resurrected, as well as that many other Biblical places and people existed at one point in time, even if they do not anymore. 5. What can Christians do to address these objections and better communicate the Christian gospel? As Christians, when we approach someone and begin to talk about our faith, it may seem like they are a little frightened, or maybe just upset and unwilling to take a leap of faith. They maybe feel like we have come on too strong, even though we know that we are just eager to talk about our faith. It is important for Christians to learn that we need to be patient with others but also diligent as we share the gospel of Christ.